Julius Caesar

Rome to be growing and quite affluent after the Punic Wars, yet the republic faced serious problems.

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Many Roman politicians took bribes and also often motivated violent mobs to aid them climb to power. Soldiers returning house from years at war could not uncover work due to the fact that rich landowners used slaves to do the work-related once excellent by poor Romans.

The republic additionally became embroiled in number of civil wars. A civil battle is a war within a nation. Countless Romans want a solid leader, and the ambitious Julius Caesar was an noticeable choice.

Gaius Julius Caesar was a patrician and also popular general when that was an initial elected consul in 59BCE. Marcus Biblius to be Caesar’s co-consul, yet Caesar paid no attention to the wishes of Biblius and the Senate.

Caesar bespeak the redistribution of lands to the poor, a decision the made him very popular with the roman people but angered countless wealthy landowning senators. Biblius attempted come veto Caesar’s act, yet Caesar’s mob assaulted the co-consul. The terrified Biblius retired to his home and left Caesar in control of the roman inn government.

The Senate tried come block Caesar’s decisions, for this reason he created a partnership through his former enemies, Crassus and also Pompey. Historians regularly refer come this alliance as the very first Triumvirate. A triumvirate is a cooperation of three equal rulers. Neither Crassus nor Pompey were consuls, however the three generals to be so well-known with the Roman world that they were able to disregard the wishes of the Senate.

Under roman law, one official might not it is in arrested when he remained in power. Learning the Senate would have him jailed as soon as he left the consulship, Caesar i ordered it to it is in appointed as governor of a Roman province in Gaul. Gaul was a territory northwest of the Italian peninsula.

Upon acquisition office in Gaul, Caesar provided his an individual fortune to raise a private army. Because that the following nine years, Caesar led his troops throughout western Europe, killing or enslaving millions and conquering soil that added to the roman Republic.

In 49BCE, the Senate bespeak Caesar come disband his an individual army and also to return to Rome together a exclusive citizen. Caesar as soon as again fear arrest, therefore he ignored the order and also marched his army earlier to Rome. Caesar’s orders clearly told him not to carry his troops across the Rubicon River. When Caesar reached the river, the knew he faced critical decision. Caesar knew that if that obeyed the Senate and also disbanded his army, his career would be over; but if that marched his troops across the river, the Senate would order Pompey and also his army to retaliate. Today when civilization say they space “crossing the Rubicon,” they describe a very significant decision the cannot be undone.


As Caesar’s military approached Rome, many frightened senators fled the city. Pompey announced the “Rome cannot be defended,” and also retreated south with his army. The staying senators named Caesar dictator. Because that the next several months, Caesar and also his military pursued Pompey transparent the Mediterranean until Pompey led his military to Egypt.

When Caesar arrived in Egypt, that met Ptolemy XIII, the ten-year-old ruler of the ancient land. Hope to acquire favor with Rome, Ptolemy gift Caesar with Pompey’s decapitated head. Caesar then met and fell in love through Cleopatra, the enlarge sister that Ptolemy XIII. Caesar spent a year through Cleopatra, and also then returned to Rome together a conquering hero.

Caesar put Cleopatra ~ above the Throne of Egyptby Pietro de Cortone. (1637)

The Senate elected, climate re-elected Caesar consul, break the Roman legacy that a consul serve just one year. If in power, Caesar resolved 80,000 of his soldiers in colonies, constructed buildings and monuments throughout the city, and also reformed the calendar.

When Caesar came to power, the calendar was the end of alignment with the seasons. Caesar describe the Julian calendar the 365¼ days. Caesar added a month come the calendar and named the July for himself. Caesar’s calendar is very closely related to the calendar we usage today.

In 44BCE, Caesar i ordered it to be named dictator because that life. A dictator is a ruler with complete control. The Senate had actually appointed dictators in the past, however only in an excellent emergencies and also for a period of no an ext than 6 months.

Caesar ignored the Senate and also ruled without their consent. Plenty of Senators became enraged due to the fact that Caesar damaged with roman inn tradition and behaved together if he to be a king. On in march 15, 44BCE, a lot of sixty senators stabbed the dictator to death in the roman inn Forum. Ironically, Caesar fell to his fatality at the foot the a statue of Pompey, the general who Caesar defeated.

Vincenzo Camuccini’s “The death of Caesar.” (1798)

With Caesar dead, Rome dropped into a period of civil wars that would cause the finish of the roman Republic and also the development of the an initial Roman Emperor.


Download this lesson together Microsoft Word document or together an Adobe Acrobat file.View a Powerpoint presentation of this lesson.Listen together Mr. Dowling reads this lessonLexile measure 1100LMean Sentence length 16.02Mean log in Word Frequency 3.33Word counting 785

Mr. Donn has an excellent website that contains a ar on ancient Rome.

Gaius Julius Caesar (100BCE – 44BCE)

History remembers Julius Caesar, but it would be a mistake come look in ~ that famed name together if it were that of a 21st century American. Caesar was no the dictator’s family members name.

Elite Romans that the late Republic had actually three or four names: a praenomen, nomen, cognomen and also occasionally one agnomen.

The praenomen was the personal name favored by the father. The praenomen of Julius Caesar to be Gaius.

The nomen to be the family name, equivalent to the castle in English speaking nations. In the Julian family, males would certainly be Julius and also females Julia.

The cognomen was the surname within a branch the a family. Historians are uncertain what Caesar could have meant. A comparable word meant “hairy” in Latin, one ironic choice for the balding dictator.

The agnomen to be a surname that distinguished a human from others v the very same name. The roman inn hero the the Punic wars was Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus. The names of his family members shared the an initial three names. The roman people added the agnomen Africanus in acknowledgment of Scipio’s loss of Hannibal in 202BCE. His brother—also a celebrated general—was Publius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus. Now it is common to add a generational title to someone who shares a name with a dad or son. Boy name Luther King, Jr. Identified the civil legal rights leader native his father.

Not all human being have a family name. In part cultures, human being are recognized only by a mononym, or solitary name. Suharto to be president of Indonesia indigenous 1967 to 1998.

Most nations identify their family name as a surname. Barack Obama is a member that the Obama family. In some nations, including China, Japan, Vietnam, Korea and also Hungary, determine the family name first. The forty-fourth president can be well-known as Obama Barack in those nations. Spain names regularly identify the household names the both parents. Novelist Gabriel García Márquez was the child of Gabriel García and also Luisa Márquez. His complete name was Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez. His friends and readers called him Gabo.

Caesar and the Pirates

The Greek historian Plutarch recounts an incident that may tell us much about the character of Julius Caesar. About 75BCE, Caesar to be returning home by sea indigenous a visit when he was recorded by pirates. The pirates told Caesar the they would ransom him to his household for a dues of twenty talons—about 1140 pounds or $350,000. Caesar told his captors that he was much too necessary to be ransomed for the amount. The insisted the pirates need fifty talons.

Caesar stayed a captive for the following thirty-eight days in their base off the coastline of Cilicia in modern-day Turkey. The young Caesar cure the pirates through disdain and also contempt. Caesar written poetry and speeches because that the pirates. If castle failed to excellent his talent, he would scold his captors as illiterate savages. Caesar took part in their games—usually beating them. Sometimes Caesar would certainly joke with the pirates that he would certainly come ago one day come crucify them all. The pirates to be amused through Caesar’s taunts, and they flourished to like and also respect the brash young man.

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The pirates exit Caesar as soon as his family members paid his ransom. Caesar then elevated a fleet the ships and also returned to the island. He caught the pirates, reclaimed his fifty talons and also took every one of their possessions. Caesar approached the praetor in charge of the province, demanding that the pirates be executed for their crime. The praetor want to sell their pirates as slaves and keep the profit for himself, so Caesar plot on his own. Caesar had actually the pirates crucified, simply as that promised once joking with them together their captive.

Caesar and also the Salad

The Caesar salad was called not because that the roman dictator however for Cesare Cardini, an Italian immigrant who ran restaurants top top both sides of the United states – Mexico border. According to Cardini’s family, the restaurateur created the Caesar salad indigenous what was left in his kitchen ~ a an especially brisk work of business on the 4th of July, 1924. Not just is the Caesar salad not Roman, the was produced on America’s birthday!