ZEUS was the King that the Gods and the god that the sky, weather, law and also order, destiny and fate, and also kingship.He was depicted as a regal, mature guy with a sturdy figure and also dark beard. His usual attributes were a lightning bolt, a royal sceptre and also an eagle.
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Zeus was the youngest boy of the Titans Kronos (Cronus) and Rheia. Kronos devoured every of his kids as they to be born, yet Zeus escaped this fate once his mommy spirited that away, handing the Titan a stone substitute covering in swaddling cloth. More>>
The god was raised in secrecy on mountain Dikte in Krete (Crete) wherein he to be nursed by nymphs on the milk the the goat Amaltheia and guarded by the warrior Kouretes (Curetes) that drowned out the sound of his crying v their shield-clashing battle-dance. More>>
Upon resulting age Zeus recruited the goddess Metis come his cause. She served the Titan Kronos a magical draught which caused him to disgorge the young god he had devoured. More>>
Zeus liberated the six giant-sons of heaven from the pit that Tartaros. In gratitude the Kyklopes (Cyclopes) equipped him v lightning-bolts and also the Hekatonkheires (Hundred-Handed) aided the in his assault on the Titanes with volleys of thrown boulders. Kronos and his allies were at some point defeated and also banished come a jail beneath the earth. More>>
After the autumn of the Titan-gods, Zeus and his brothers attracted lots to divide dominance of the cosmos - Zeus won the heavens, Poseidon the sea and Haides the underworld.
Zeus devoured the pregnant goddess Metis when an oracle revealed that her child was destined to change him together King of the Gods. Their child, Athena, was consequently born in his belly and birthed directly from his head. More>>
Zeus married his sister Hera, queen the the heavens, ~ seducing she in the guise the a cuckoo-bird. Yet this union of ever before quarreling sky-god and sky-goddess showed not to it is in a enhance made in heaven! More>>
Prometheus make the race of man and also gave lock fire stolen from the god of heaven. Zeus punished this action by bespeak the development of the very first woman, Pandora, and sent she to earth with a vessel full of problem to torment mankind. Prometheus self was arrested and chained come a hill with an eagle collection to torment him. More>>
The at an early stage generations of man descended into wickedness and also corruption and also Zeus chose to wipe them native the face of the earth with a great deluge. One virtuous couple, Deukalion and Pyrrha, were spared and after that allowed come repopulate the world with the casting of stones i m sorry transformed into men. More>>
The earth-goddess Gaia (Gaea), angered by the imprisonment the the Titanes, urged the Giants to climb up versus the god of Olympos. They laid siege come the heavenly fortress however Zeus set low their king and also many others v his fatal lightning-bolts. More>>
Gaia produced one much more giant, Typhoeus, the most monstrous the his kind and set him top top Olympos. The remainder of the gods fled in horror and also Zeus self was defeated in combat v the monster tearing the sinews indigenous his limbs rendering him helpless. Pan later stole back the god"s strength and, restored, Zeus defeated the large in a rematch and bound that beneath mount Etna. More>>
Zeus seduced countless mortal woman including Leda in the guise the a swan, Europa as a bull, Danae together a shower head of gold, Alkmene as her very own husband, Kallisto (Callisto) together the goddess Artemis, and also Antiope as a satyr. More>>
The god"s favorite mortal kid was Herakles (Heracles) who he supported throughout his trials and eventually invited to Olympos together a god.
Zeus punished the worst villians of legend for your impiety and crimes versus the gods including Tantalos who stole ambrosia indigenous heaven, Lykaon (Lycaon) who served human being flesh come the gods, Ixion that attempted to rape Zeus" wife the goddess Hera, and also Salmoneus who tried to imitate Zeus and steal the worship that to be due the gods.
Many other myths are in-depth over the adhering to pages.
SYMBOLS & ATTRIBUTES
Zeus" many distinctive attribute to be his stylized lightning bolt which that wielded in his hand choose a javelin. His other features included a imperial sceptre, a throne, an eagle, a miniature Nike (winged goddess of victory), and also the aigis (a goat-skin arm-guard). The god was normally clothed in a lengthy robe (chiton) and also cloak (himation) however was sometimes shown nude. The was frequently crowned through a wreath the olive leaves.
Below space some examples of his characteristics as depicted in old Greek art:-
1. Lightning bolt; 2. Lightning bolt; 3. Throne; 4. Wreath of olive-leaves.
SACRED pets & PLANTS
Zeus" sacred pets were the eagle and also the bull. In myth he abducted the youth Ganymede in the form of one eagle and the maiden Europa in the guise of a bull.His spiritual plants to be the evergreen holm oak and the olive tree. In ~ the ancient oracle the Dodona Zeus" clergymans were influenced by the rustling the oak-leaves, and at the Olympic gamings victors were crowned through a wreath of olive-leaves picked from the god"s sacred grove.
Below are examples of the god"s pets as illustrated in ancient Greek art and photos of his spiritual plants:-
1. Eagle; 2. Bull; 3. Holm oak; 4. Olive tree.
RETINUE the ZEUS
Befitting his role as King the the Gods, Zeus was attended by a large complement the lesser divinities.
His throne to be guarded by four winged spirits, 2 male and also two female, called Kratos (Strength), Zelos (Rivalry), Nike (Victory) and also Bia (Force). Kratos and Bia worked as muscular enforcers and also were tasked with jobs such together the apprehension and also imprisonment of the Titan Prometheus. Nike journey Zeus" chariot and also often accompanied that in miniature kind as miscellaneous of a divine familiar.
The god Hermes to be Zeus" an individual herald that acted as diplomat, envoy and also general certified dealer of the god"s will.
His messenger was Iris, the winged goddess that the rainbow, who simply relayed message verbatim and delivered regulates to the other gods.
Zeus" high councillor Themis, goddess the law and order, to be seated beside his throne. She to be attended through their six daughters the Moirai (Fates) and also the Horai (Seasons). This goddesses were jointly responsible because that the orderly work of the cosmos. Themis was also charged v summoning every one of the gods to assembly in the courtyard of Zeus.
The god"s virgin sisters Hestia likewise resided in his royal residence where she tended the ever-burning, divine hearth-fire in the facility of his hall.
Metis, goddess the wisdom, was probably his most unusual attendant. Zeus swallowed her entirety to stop a prophesy and also she take it up residence in his belly. The ancient Greeks believed the belly quite than the mind was the chair of thought and also emotion, and also so by subsuming she he properly implanted way counsel in his mind. She continued to exist in some type or other within the god, also to the extent of birthing Athena there and also equipping her with armour and weapons before her 2nd birth from Zeus" head.
Ganymede and also the goddess Hebe were Zeus" cupbearers who served ambrosia and nectar at the feasts of the gods.The winged Harpyiai (Harpies), well-known as the "hounds that Zeus", to be crude creatures tasked by the god through carrying off or harrassing mortals.Pegasos, the winged horse, lugged Zeus" lightning bolts, and also four other immortal horses attracted his chariot v the sky.
ZEUS PAGES top top barisalcity.org
This site consists of a complete of 8 pages describing the god, including basic descriptions, mythology, and also cult. The content is outlined in the index of Zeus Pages (left pillar or below).
FAMILY the ZEUS
KRONOS & RHEA (Homer Iliad 15.187, Hesiod Theogony 453, Apollodorus 1.4, Diodorus Siculus 5.68.1, et al)
See family of Zeus
Zeus to be a boy of the Titans Kronos (Cronus) and also Rheia and a nephew of Ouranos (the Sky) and also Gaia (the Earth). He was a brothers of the god Poseidon, Haides, Hera, Demeter and Hestia.Zeus married his sister, the sky-goddess Hera, and also they had three kids - Ares, Hebe and also Eileithyia.His other divine consorts included: his sisters Demeter mommy of Persephone; his cousins Metis mother of Athena, Leto mom of Apollon and Leto, and also Maia mommy of Hermes; his aunts Dione mommy of Aphrodite, Themis mommy of the Moirai (Fates) and Horai (Seasons), and also Mnemosyne mother of the Mousai (Muses); and his descendant Semele mother of Dionysos.He was also the father of innumerable mortal kings and also heroes, the most famed of which were Perseus, Herakles (Heracles), and also Helene that Troy. More>>
Below space two graphics illustrating Zeus" core family members tree, the first with surname transliterated native the Greek and the 2nd with the usual English spellings:-
A much an ext detailed family tree because that Zeus including all of his immortal lovers and also children can be discovered here (transliterated Greek version) and here (English names version).
ZEUS (Zeus), the best of the Olympian gods, and also the father of gods and men, was a kid of Cronos and Rhea, a brothers of Poseidon, Hades (Pluto), Hestia, Demeter, Hera, and also at the same time married to his sisters Hera. Once Zeus and his brother distributed among themselves the government of the civilization by lot, Poseidon derived the sea, Hades the reduced world, and Zeus the heavens and the top regions, however the earth came to be common to all (Hom. Il. xv. 187, &c., i. 528, ii. 111; Virg. Aen. iv. 372).
Later mythologers enumerate three Zeus in your genealogies two Arcadian ones and also one Cretan; and tne an initial is stated to it is in a son of Aether, the second of Coelus, and the 3rd of Saturnus (Cic. de Nat. Deor. iii. 21). This accounts for the reality that some writers use the name of the king of heaven who sends dew, rain, snow, thunder, and also lightning for sky itself in its physics sense. (Horat. Carm. i. 1. 25 ; Virg. Georg. ii. 419.)
According to the Homeric account Zeus, choose the various other Olympian gods, dwelt on mount Olympus in Thessaly, i beg your pardon was thought to pass through with that is lofty summit into heaven chin (Il. i. 221, &c., 354, 609, xxi. 438). The is called the father of gods and also men (i. 514, v. 33; comp. Aeschyl. Sept. 512), the most high and powerful among the immortals, whom all others obey (Il. xix. 258, viii. 10, &c.). That is the highest ruler, who with his counsel manages every thing (i. 175, viii. 22), the founder that kingly power, the law and of order, whence Dice, Themis and also Nemesis are his aides (i. 238, ii. 205, ix. 99, xvi. 387; comp. Hes. Op. Et D. 36 ; Callim. Hymn. In Jov. 79).
For the same reason he protects the assembly the the human being (agoraios), the meetings that the board of directors (boulaios), and also as he presides over the entirety state, so also over every house and family (herkeios, Od. xxii. 335; comp. Ov. Ib. 285). He also watched end the sanctity that the oath (horkios), the legislation of hospitality (xenios), and protected suppliants (hikesios, Od. ix. 270; comp. Paus. V. 24. § 2). The avenged those who were wronged, and punished those who had actually committed a crime, for he watched the doings and sufferings of all guys (epopsios, Od. xiii. 213; comp. Apollon. Rhod. I. 1123).
He was further the original resource of every prophetic power, former whom all prophetic signs and sounds proceeded (panomphaios, Il. viii. 250 ; comp. Aeschyl. Eum. 19 ; Callim. Hymn. In Jov. 69). Every thing great as well as negative comes native Zeus, and according come his own an option he assigns their an excellent or evil lot come mortals (Od. iv. 237, vi. 188, ix. 552, Il. x. 71, xvii. 632, &c.), and also fate itself to be subordinate to him.
He is equipped with thunder and also lightning, and the shower of his aegis produce storm and also tempest (Il. xvii. 593) : a variety of epithets the Zeus in the Homeric poems explain him as the thunderer, the gatherer that clouds, and the like.
He to be married come Hera, by whom he had actually two sons, Ares and also Hephaestus, and also one daughter, Hebe (Il. i. 585, v. 896, Od. xi. 604). Hera periodically acts together an live independence divinity, she is ambitious and also rebels versus her lord, yet she is nevertheless inferior come him, and is punished for her opposition (Il. xv. 17, &c., xix. 95, &c.) ; his amours with other goddesses or mortal women room not concealed from her, though they usually rouse she jealousy and also revenge (Il. xiv. 317). Throughout the Trojan war, Zeus, at the inquiry of Thetis, favoured the Trojans, until Agamemnon made great the wrong he had done come Achilles.
Zeus, no doubt, was originally a god of a part of nature, whence the oak v its eatable fruit and also the abundant doves were sacred to him in ~ Dodona and in Arcadia (hence additionally rain, storms, and also the periods were related to as his work, and hence the Cretan stories of milk, honey, and cornucopia) ; but in the Homeric poems, this primitive character of a personification of certain powers of nature is currently effaced to part extent, and the god appears as a political and also national divinity, as the king and father the men, as the founder and also protector of all organizations hallowed by law, custom. Or religion.
Hesiod (Theog. 116, &c.) additionally calls Zeus the child of Cronos and Rhea , and the brother of Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon. Cronos swallowed his children immediately after their birth, however when Rhea was near giving birth come Zeus, she used to Uranus and also Ge because that advice regarding how the child might be saved. Before the hour of bear came, Uranus and Ge sent out Rhea to Lyctos in Crete, requesting she to carry up her child there. Rhea accordingly concealed her infant in a cavern of mount Aegaeon, and also gave to Cronos a stone wrapped up in cloth, which that swallowed in the belief that it to be his son. Other traditions state that Zeus to be born and also brought up on mountain Dicte or Ida (also the Trojan Ida), Ithome in Messenia, Thebes in Boeotia, Aegion in Achaia, or Olenos in Aetolia. Follow to the usual account, however, Zeus prospered up in Crete. Together Rhea is sometimes identified with Ge, Zeus is likewise called a kid of Ge. (Aeschyl. Suppl. 901.)
In the meantime Cronos by a cunning maker of Ge or Metis was made to bring up the children he had swallowed, and very first of all the stone, which to be afterwards collection up through Zeus at Delphi. The young god now yielded the Cyclopes indigenous the bonds through which they had actually been fettered by Cronos, and they in their gratitude listed him through thunder and lightning. Top top the advice the Ge. Zeus additionally liberated the hundred-armed Gigantes, Briareos, Cottus, and Gyes, that they could assist him in his fight against the Titans. (Apollod. I. 2. § 1; Hes. Theog. 617, &c.) The Titans to be conquered and also shut up in Tartarus (Theog. 717), where they to be henceforth guarded by the Hecatoncheires. Thereupon Tartarus and Ge begot Typhoeus, who started a fearful battle with Zeus, but was conquered. (Theog. 820, &c.)
Zeus now obtained the rule of the world, and also chose Metis for his wife. (Theog. 881, &c.) when she to be pregnant v Athena, he take it the child out of her body and also concealed it in his own, top top the advice that Uranus and also Ge, that told him the thereby he would certainly retain the supremacy of the world. Because that Metis had provided birth to a son, this son (so fate had actually ordained it) would certainly have acquired the sovereignty. ~ this Zeus, by his second wife Themis. Became the father of the Horae and Moerae; the the Charites through Eurynome, of Persephone through Demeter, that the Muses by Mnemosyne, the Apollo and also Artemis by Leto, and of Hebe, Ares, and also Eileithyia through Hera. Athena was born out of the head that Zeus; when Hera, ~ above the various other hand, provided birth to Hephaestus there is no the co-operation that Zeus. (Theog. 8866, &c.)
The family members of the Cronidae as necessary embraces the twelve an excellent gods the Olympus, Zeus (the head of castle all), Poseidon, Apollo, Ares, Hermes, Hephaestus, Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Athena, Aphrodite, and Artemis. This twelve Olympian gods, that in some places were worshipped as a body, together at Athens (Thueyd. Vi. 54), were recognised not just by the Greeks, yet were embraced also through the Romans, who, in particular, determined their Jupiter v the Greek Zeus.
In surveying the various local traditions around Zeus, it would certainly seem that initially there to be several, at least three, divinities i m sorry in your respective countries were supreme, but which in the food of time ended up being united in the mental of tile world into one good national divinity. We may appropriately speak of one Arcadian, Dodonaean, Cretan, and also a nationwide Hellenic Zeus.
1. The Arcadian Zeus (Zeus Lukaios) to be born, according to the legends that the country, in Arcadia, one of two people on mountain Parrhasion (Callim. Hymn. In Jov. 7, 10), or in a district of mountain Lycaeon, which was called Cretea. (Paus. Viii. 38. § 1 ; Callim. l. C. 14.) the was brought up there by the nymphs Theisoa, Neda, and Hagno; the an initial of these provided her surname to one Arcadian town, the 2nd to a river, and also the third to a well. (Paus. Viii. 38. § 2, &c., 47. § 2; comp. Callim. l. C. 33.) Lycaon, a son of Pelasgus, who built the first and most ancient town of Lycosura, dubbed Zeus Lycaeus, and also erected a temple and also instituted the festival that the Lyceia in honour that him; the further readily available to the bloody sacrifices, and among others his own son, in repercussion of i beg your pardon he to be metamorphosed into a wolf (lukos; Paus. Viii. 2. § 1, 38. § 1; Callim. l. C. 4 ; Ov. Met. i. 218.) nobody was allowed to go into the sanctuary that Zeus Lycaeus on mount Lycaeon, and also there was a belief that, if any kind of one gone into it, he died within twelve months after, and that in it neither people nor pets cast a shadow. (Paus. Viii. 38. § 5; comp. Schol. ad Callim. Hymn. In Jov. 13.) Those who gotten in it deliberately were stoned come death, uneven they escaped through flight; and also those that had acquired in through accident were sent to Eleutherae. (Plut. Quaest. Gr. 39.) on the highest possible summit the Lycaeon, there to be an altar the Zeus, in former of which, towards the east, over there were two pillars bearing golden eagles. The sacrifices offered there were retained secret. (Paus. Viii. 38. § 5; Callim. l. C. 68.)
2. The Dodonaean Zeus (Zeus Dôdônaios or Pelasgikos) own the most ancient oracle in Greece, at Dodona in Epeirus, near mount Tomarus (Tmarus or Tomurus), native which he obtained his name. (Hom. Il. ii. 750, xvi. 233; Herod. Ii. 52 ; Paus. I. 17. § 5; Strab. V. P. 338, vi. P. 504; Virg. Eclog. viii. 44.) in ~ Dodona Zeus was mostly a prophetic god, and the oak tree was sacred to that ; yet there also he was said to have been reared by if the Dodonaean nymphs (Hyades; Schol. ad Hom. Il. xviii. 486; Hygin. Fab. 182 ; Ov. Fast. vi. 711, Met. iii. 314). Respecting the Dodonaean oracle that Zeus, view Dict. Of Ant. S. V. Oraculum.
3. The Cretan Zeus (Zeus Diktaios or Krêtagenês). We have already given the account of the which is had in the Theogony of Hesiod. He is the god, to who Rhea, surprise from Cronos, offered birth in a cave of mountain Dicte, and also whom she entrusted to the Curetes and the nymphs Adrasteia and also Ida, the daughters that Melisseus. Lock fed him through milk the the goat Amaltheia, and the bees that the mountain listed him through honey. (Apollod. I. 1. § 6; Callim. l. C. ; Diod. V. 70; comp. Athen. Xi. 70; Ov. Fast. v. 115.) Crete is referred to as the island or nurse that the great Zeus, and his prayer there appears to have actually been an extremely ancient. (Virg. Aen. iii. 104; Dionys. Perieg. 501.) amongst the places in the island i m sorry were particularly sacred come the god, we must mention the district around mount Ida, especially Cnosus, which was said to have actually been built by the Curetes, and also where Minos had actually ruled and conversed v Zeus (Hom. Od. xix. 172; Plat. de Leg. i. 1; Diod. V. 70; Strab. X. P. 730; Cic. de Nat. Deor. iii. 21); Gortyn, whereby the god, in the type of a bull, landed as soon as he had lugged off Europa indigenous Phoenicia, and where the was worshipped under the lock of Hecatombaeus (Hesych. s. V.) ; further the towns about mount Dicte, as Lyctos (Hes. Theog. 477), Praesos, Hierapytna, Biennos, Eleuthernae and Oaxus. (Comp. Hoeck, Creta, i. P. 160, &c., 339, &c.)
4. The national Hellenic Zeus, near whose holy place at Olympia in Elis, the good national panegyris was celebrated every fifth year. There also Zeus was concerned as the father and also king of gods and men, and also as the can be fried god of the Hellenic nation, His statue there to be executed by Pheidias, a few years before the outbreak of the Peloponnesian war, the majestic and sublime idea for this statue having been said to the artist by the words of Homer, Il. i. 527. (Comp. Hygin. Fab. 223.) according to the heritages of Elis, Cronos was the an initial ruler the the country, and in the golden e there was a temple specialized to him in ~ Olympia. Rhea, the is additional said, entrusted the infant Zeus come the Idaean Dactyls, who were additionally called Curetes, and had come from mountain Ida in Crete come Elis. Heracles, one of them, competed with his brother Dactyls in a footrace, and adorned the victor with a wreath that olive. In this manner that is stated to have started the Olympian games, and Zeus to have completed with Cronos for the kingdom of Elis. (Paus. V. 7. § 4.)
The Greek and Latin poets give to Zeus an immense number of epithets and also surnames, i m sorry are obtained partly from the areas where he was worshipped, and partly indigenous his powers and functions. The was worshipped throughout Greece and her colonies, so that it would be useless and virtually impossible to enumerate all the places.
The eagle, the oak, and also the summits of mountains were sacred to him, and also his sacrifices generally consisted of goats, bulls and also cows. (Hom. Il. ii. 403; Aristot. Ethic. v. 10, ix. 2; Virg. Aen. iii. 21, ix. 627.) His usual qualities are, the sceptre, eagle, thunderbolt, and a number of victory in his hand, and also sometimes additionally a cornucopia. The Olympian Zeus occasionally wears a wreath of olive, and also the Dodonaean Zeus a wreath of oak leaves.
In functions of art Zeus is usually represented as the omnipotent father and also king of gods and men, according to the idea which had actually been embodied in the statue of the Olympian Zeus by Pheidias.
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Source: dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and also Mythology.
CLASSICAL literary works QUOTES
HYMNS to ZEUS
Homeric chant 23 to Cronides (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epos C7th to 4th B.C.) :"To
Orphic chant 15 come Zeus (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. To second A.D.) :"O Zeus, much-honoured, Zeus supremely great, come thee our divine rites us consecrate, our prayers and expiations, king divine, for all things to develop with ease v mind is thine. Hence mother earth (gaia) and also mountains swelling high continue from thee, the deep and also all in ~ the sky. Kronion (Cronion) king, descending indigenous above, magnanimous, commanding, sceptred Zeus; all-parent, principle and also end of all, whose strength almighty shakes this earthly ball; even nature trembles at thy mighty nod, loud-sounding, equipped with lightning, thundering god. Source of abundance, wash and clean king, O various-formed, indigenous whom all natures spring; propitious hear mine prayer, give blameless health, with tranquility divine, and also necessary wealth."
Orphic chant 19 to Zeus the Thunder :"To Zeus Keraunos (Ceraunus) (Thundering). O dad Zeus, that shakest v fiery light the world, deep-sounding from thy lofty height. Indigenous thee proceeds the ethereal lightning"s blaze, flashing around intolerable rays. Thy sacred thunders shiver the blest abodes, the shining areas of the immortal Gods. Her power divine the flaming lightning shrouds through dark investiture in liquid clouds. "Tis thine to brandish thunders solid and dire, to scatter storms, and also dreadful darts that fire; through roaring flames entailing all around, and bolts of thunder of remarkable sound. Thy quick dart deserve to raise the hair upright, and shake the heart of man with wild affright. Sudden, unconquered, holy, thundering God, with noise boundless flying all abroad; v all-devouring force, entire and also strong, horrid, untamed, you rollest the flames along. Rapid, ethereal bolt, to decrease fire, the earth, all-parent, trembles in ~ thine ire; the sea all-shining, and each beast, the hears the sound terrific, through dread horror fears: as soon as nature"s face is bright through flashing fire, and in the heavens resound castle thunders dire. Lock thunders white the azure clothing tear, and also burst the veil that all-surrounding air. O Zeus, all-blessed, may thy wrath severe, hurled in the bosom the the deep appear, and on the tops of mountains be revealed, for thy strong arm is not from united state concealed. Propitious come these sacred rites incline, and also to her suppliants grant a life divine, include royal health, and gentle tranquility beside, through upright thinking for a constant guide."
Orphic singing 20 come Zeus of Lightning :"To Zeus Astrapaios (Astrapaeus) (Lightning Maker). I contact the mighty, holy, splendid, light, aerial, dreadful-sounding, fiery-bright, flaming, ethereal light, through angry voice, lighting through lucid clouds with crashing noise. Untamed, to who resentments dire belong, pure, holy power, all-parent, good and strong: come, and benevolent this rites attend, and also grant the mortal life a satisfaction end."
Orphic singing 73 to the Daemon :"To the Daimon