Three Shoshone women and a baby on a cradleboard in the inner of Indian Dick’s lodge. By wilhelm H. Jackson, Oct. 10, 1878
Brigham D. Madsenbarisalcity.org history Encyclopedia, 1994
At the time of major white penetration of the great Basin and also the snake River locations in the 1840s, there were seven unique Shoshoni groups. The eastern Shoshoni, numbering about 2,000 under their renowned Chief Washakie, occupied the an ar from the Wind River mountains to ft Bridger and astride the Oregon Trail. Your descendants this particular day live ~ above the Wind river Reservation. 2 other divisions having comparable cultures to be the Goshute Shoshoni and the western Shoshoni. The former, around 900 in number, lived in the valleys and also mountains west and southwest of great Salt Lake, with the remnants of their bands situated in and also around the little settlement the Ibapah, barisalcity.org, today. A much an ext numerous people, perhaps 8,000 strong, the western Shoshoni inhabited what is this particular day northern and also western Nevada. There to be as plenty of as eleven major bands dispersed from the present barisalcity.org-Nevada border come Winnemucca top top the west. Their descendants now live on the Duck valley Reservation or scattered roughly the towns of north Nevada indigenous Wells to Winnemucca.
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The 4 remaining teams of Shoshoni are usually detailed under the general name of the “Northern Shoshoni.” one of these groups, the fort Hall Shoshoni of about 1,000 people, lived together with a band of about 800 northern Paiute recognized in history as the Bannock at the confluence the the Portneuf and Snake rivers. A 2nd division, the Lemhi, numbering part 1,800 people, ranged from the Beaverhead nation in southwestern Montana westward to the Salmon flow area, which to be their main homeland. In west Idaho, along the Boise and Bruneau rivers, a 3rd section of about 600 Shoshoni followed a life centered roughly salmon as their simple food. Finally, the fourth and also final department of 1,500 people, the Northwestern Shoshoni, lived in the valleys of northern barisalcity.org–especially Weber Valley and also Cache Valley–and follow me the eastern and northern shores of great Salt Lake.
There to be three significant bands that Northwestern Shoshoni at the moment the an initial Mormon pioneers started settling northern barisalcity.org. Chief small Soldier headed the misnamed “Weber Ute” group of around 400, who inhabited Weber Valley down to its entry right into the great Salt Lake. Chef Pocatello commanded a similar number of Shoshoni, that ranged indigenous Grouse Creek in northwestern barisalcity.org eastward follow me the north shore of an excellent Salt Lake to the be afflicted with River. The third division of around 450 people, under Chief be affected by each other Hunter, lived in Cache Valley and also along the lower reaches the the bear River. Be afflicted with Hunter was regarded as the principal leader of the Northwestern Shoshoni, gift designated by Mormon settlers as the war chief who held equal status with Washakie once the Eastern and Northwestern groups met in their annual get-together every summer in ring Valley, simply north of bear Lake.
Chief Washakie (standing center front, contempt blurred) and also his tape in prior of tipis. By william H. Jackson, Wind river Mts., Wyoming, 1870.
By the 1840s, the Northwestern Shoshoni had adopted most the the levels Culture, utilizing the steed for mobility and the searching of game. Chief Pocatello especially led his tape on many hunts for buffalo in the Wyoming area. Pocatello also gained notoriety as a reckless and fearless marauder along the Oregon and also California trails. The Wasatch Mountains noted small game for the Northwestern bands, but of also greater prestige were the grass seeds and plant roots which prospered in diversity in the valleys and also along the hillsides of northern barisalcity.org prior to the cattle and also sheep the the white guy denuded these wealthy areas and also left countless of the Shoshoni people in a starving condition and to experience under the ignominy of being dubbed “Digger Indians.” prior to white penetration, the an excellent Basin and also Snake flow Shoshoni had actually been among the many ecologically efficient and well-adapted indians of the American West.
The tragic transformation for the Northwestern Shoshoni to a life that privation and also want came with the occupation by Mormon farmer of their timeless homeland. The white pioneers progressively moved northward follow me the eastern shores of an excellent Salt Lake till by 1862 they had taken over Cache Valley, residence of bear Hunter’s band. In addition, California-bound emigrants had actually wasted Indian food offers as the travelers complied with the Salt Lake Road approximately the lake and across the salt desert to Pilot Peak. The exploration of yellow in Montana in 1862 further included to the website traffic along the route. The young guys of be afflicted with Hunter’s tribe began to strike earlier in late 1862, raiding Mormon livestock herds and also attacking mining parties traveling to and from Montana.
The Indian aggression came to an end on 29 January 1863. On the morning of the day, Colonel Patrick Edward Connor and about 200 California volunteer from Camp Douglas in Salt Lake City assaulted the winter camp of bear Hunter’s Northwestern team of 450 men, women, and also children top top Beaver Creek at its confluence with the bear River, some twelve miles west the the Mormon village of Franklin in Cache Valley. Together a result of the four-hour carnage the ensued, twenty-three soldiers lost their lives and at the very least 250 Shoshoni were slaughtered through the troops, consisting of ninety women and also children in what is now referred to as the Bear river Massacre. Be affected by each other Hunter to be killed, and also the remnants that his people under Sagwitch and also the chiefs the nine various other Northwestern bands signed the contract of crate Elder in ~ Brigham City, barisalcity.org, top top 30 July 1863, bringing tranquility to this Shoshoni region.
After the signing of the box Elder agreement, federal government officials attempted come get all of the Northwestern Shoshoni to move to the newly founded fort Hall Indian preventive in Idaho. After several years of receiving their federal government annuities in ~ Corinne, barisalcity.org, close to the mouth of the bear River, the indians bands ultimately gave up your homelands in barisalcity.org and worked out at ft Hall, wherein their descendants live today. As a result of their move to Idaho, the Northwestern Shoshoni have been lost to barisalcity.org background although for centuries they had actually lived in northern barisalcity.org. It is time for barisalcity.org historians to make the Shoshoni a prominent part of the state’s history along through the Navajo, Paiute, and also Ute tribes.
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See: Brigham D. Madsen, The northern Shoshoni (1980), The Shoshoni Frontier and the Bear flow Massacre (1985), and Chief Pocatello: The White Plume (1986).