The task of metals Classifying Metals based upon Activity
Predicting the Product the Main team Metal reactions

The task ofMetals

The main difference between metals is the ease with whichthey experience barisalcity.orgical reactions. The elements toward the bottomleft corner of the periodic table space the steels that room themost active in the feeling of gift the most reactive.Lithium, sodium, and also potassium all react v water, for example.The rate of this reaction boosts as us go down this column,however, due to the fact that these aspects become much more active together they becomemore metallic.

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Classifying MetalsBased ~ above Activity

The steels are often divided into 4 classes top top the communication oftheir activity, as displayed in the table below.

Common Metals split into class on theBasis of your Activity

Class ns Metals: The active Metals
Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs (Group IA)
Ca, Sr, Ba (Group IIA)
Class II Metals: The Less active Metals
Mg, Al, Zn, Mn
Class III Metals: The structural Metals
Cr, Fe, Sn, Pb, Cu
Class IV Metals: The Coinage Metals
Ag, Au, Pt, Hg

The most energetic metals space so reactive that they readilycombine v the O2 and H2O vapor in theatmosphere and are because of this stored under an inert liquid, suchas mineral oil. These steels are uncovered exclusively in groups IAand IIA the the routine table.

Metals in the second class room slightly less active. Theydon"t react v water in ~ room temperature, yet they reactrapidly v acids.

The 3rd class contains metals such together chromium, iron, tin,and lead, which react just with strong acids. It likewise containseven less active metals such together copper, which just dissolves whentreated with acids that have the right to oxidize the metal.

Metals in the fourth course are so unreactive lock areessentially inert in ~ room temperature. These steels are ideal formaking jewel or coins due to the fact that they carry out not react with the vastmajority that the substances through which castle come into dailycontact. As a result, they room often referred to as the "coinagemetals."

Predicting the Productof Main team Metal reaction

The product of countless reactions between main group metals andother aspects can be predicted native the electron configurationsof the elements.

Example: think about the reaction in between sodium and also chlorine toform sodium chloride. That takes much more energy to remove an electronfrom a salt atom to form an Na+ ion than we acquire backwhen this electron is added to a chlorine atom to form a Cl-ion. As soon as these ions are formed, however, the force of attractionbetween these ion liberates enough energy to make the followingreaction exothermic.

Na(s) + 1/2 Cl2(g) " width="17" height="9" sgi_fullpath="/disk2/barisalcity.orgistry/"> NaCl(s)
Ho = -411.3 kJ/mol

The net result of this reaction is to deliver one electronfrom a neutral salt atom come a neutral chlorine atom to form Na+and Cl- ion that have actually filled-shell configurations.


Potassium and also hydrogen have actually the adhering to electronconfigurations.

K: 4s1 H: 1s1

When these aspects react, one electron needs to be transferredfrom one aspect to the other. We deserve to decide which facet shouldlose one electron by comparing the an initial ionization power forpotassium (418.8 kJ/mol) through that because that hydrogen (1312.0 kJ/mol).

Potassium is much much more likely to shed anelectron in this reaction, which way that hydrogen benefit anelectron to kind K+ and also H- ions.

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Practice problem 1:

Write a well balanced equation for the adhering to reaction.

Li(s) + O2(s) " width="17" height="9" sgi_fullpath="/disk2/barisalcity.orgistry/">