Fluorine (F) is the very first element in the Halogen group (group 17) in the routine table. Its atomic number is 9 and also its atomic weight is 19, and also it"s a gas at room temperature. That is the most electronegative element, given that it is the top facet in the Halogen Group, and therefore is very reactive. That is a nonmetal, and is among the couple of elements that can type diatomic molecule (F2). It has actually 5 valence electron in the 2p level. That electron configuration is 1s22s22p5. It will usually type the anion F- due to the fact that it is incredibly electronegative and also a solid oxidizing agent. Fluorine is a Lewis mountain in weak acid, which means that it accepts electrons once reacting. Fluorine has plenty of isotopes, however the only stable one discovered in nature is F-19.

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Quick recommendation Table

prize atomic Number team Electron configuration Atomic load density Melting allude Boiling point an important Point Oxidation states Electronegativity stable Isotopes
17 (Halogens)
18.998 g
1.7 g/L
144.13K, 5.172 MPa

Brief History

In the so late 1600"s minerals which us now understand contain fluorine were supplied in etching glass. The exploration of the facet was triggered by the search for the barisalcity.orgical substance which was able to assault glass (it is HF, a weak acid). The early background of the isolation and work v fluorine and hydrogen fluoride is filled with crashes since both are incredibly dangerous. Eventually, electrolysis of a mixture of KF and also HF (carefully ensuring that the result hydrogen and fluorine would certainly not come in contact) in a platinum apparatus succumbed the element.

Figure 2: digital configuration the Fluorine

Fluorine is the most electronegative facet because it has actually 5 electrons in it"s 2P shell. The optimal electron configuration of the 2P orbital includes 6 electrons, so due to the fact that Fluorine is so close to best electron configuration, the electrons space held really tightly to the nucleus. The high electronegativity the fluorine defines its tiny radius because the hopeful protons have actually a very solid attraction come the negative electrons, holding them closer to the nucleus 보다 the bigger and less electronegative elements.

Reactions the Fluorine

Because of its reactivity, elemental fluorine is never uncovered in nature and no various other barisalcity.orgical facet can displace fluorine indigenous its compounds. Fluorine bond with almost any element, both metals and also nonmetals, since it is a very strong oxidizing agent. That is really unstable and also reactive because it is therefore close come its ideal electron configuration. It creates covalent bonds v nonmetals, and also since the is the many electronegative element, is always going to it is in the aspect that is reduced. It have the right to also kind a diatomic facet with chin ((F_2)), or covalent bonds wherein it oxidizes various other halogens ((ClF), (ClF_3), (ClF_5)). It will react explosively with plenty of elements and compounds such as Hydrogen and also water. Elemental Fluorine is slightly basic, which method that as soon as it reacts v water it develops (OH^-).

<3F_2+2H_2O ightarrow O_2+4HF ag1>

When an unified with Hydrogen, Fluorine creates Hydrofluoric acid ((HF)), i m sorry is a weak acid. This mountain is very dangerous and when dissociated can cause severe damages to the body since while it might not be painful initially, that passes with tissues quickly and also can cause deep burns the interfere v nerve function.

There are additionally some necessary compounds do of Fluorine, varying from nontoxic to very toxic. Fluorine creates covalent bonds with Carbon, which sometimes type into stable fragrant rings. As soon as Carbon reacts with Fluorine the reaction is complex and forms a mixture the (CF_4), (C_2F_6), one (C_5F_12).

Fluorine reacts with Oxygen to kind (OF_2) since Fluorine is much more electronegative than Oxygen. The reaction goes:

<2F_2 + O_2 ightarrow 2OF_2 ag4>

Fluorine is so electronegative that sometimes it will certainly even kind molecules through noble gases like Xenon, such as the the molecule Xenon Difluoride, (XeF_2).

Fluorine likewise forms strong ionic compounds v metals. Some typical ionic reactions of Fluorine are:

<4F_2 + HCl + H_2O ightarrow 3HF + OF_2 + ClF_3 ag7>

Applications the Fluorine

Compounds of fluorine are present in fluoridated toothpaste and in countless municipal water systems where they assist to prevent tooth decay. And, the course, fluorocarbons such as Teflon have actually made a significant impact on life in the 20th century. There are many applications that fluorine:

Rocket fuel Polymer and plastics manufacturing teflon and tefzel manufacturing When merged with Oxygen, supplied as a frozen fridge cooler Hydrofluoric acid supplied for glass etching Purify publicly water supplies Uranium manufacturing Air conditioning


Fluorine can either be uncovered in nature or produced in a lab. To do it in a lab, compounds prefer Potassium Fluoride are placed through electrolysis through Hydrofluoric mountain to produce pure Fluorine and other compounds. It have the right to be lugged out v a selection of compounds, usually ionic ones involving Fluorine and also a metal. Fluorine can also be discovered in nature in miscellaneous minerals and compounds. The two main compounds it have the right to be uncovered in room Fluorspar ((CaF_2)) and also Cryolite ((Na_3AlF_6)).

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Newth, G. S. Not natural barisalcity.orgistry. Longmans, Green, and also Co.:New York, 1903. Latimer, Wendell M., Hildebrand, Joel H. Reference book of inorganic barisalcity.orgistry. The Macmillan Company: new York, 1938.