Introduction The phylum Mollusca includes snails, clams, chitons, slugs, limpets, octopi, and also squid. As mollusks build from a fertilized egg to an adult, many pass v a larval stage referred to as the trocophore. The trocophore is a ciliated, free-swimming stage. Mollusks additionally have a radula or file-like organ for feeding, a mantle that might secrete a shell, and also a muscular foot for locomotion. Clams are maritime mollusks with 2 valves or shells. Favor all mollusks, a clam has a mantle which surrounding its soft body. It also has a muscular foot which allows the clam come burrow chin in mud or sand. The soft tissue over the foot is called the visceral mass and also contains the clam’s body organs.

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Taxonomy Kingdom – Animalia Phylum – Mollusca course – Bivalvia or Pelecypoda

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Objective To examine the internal and external anatomy the a bivalve mollusk.

Materials Dissecting pan, dissecting kit, screwdriver, lab apron, plastic gloves, safety and security glasses, kept clam

Procedure

placed on your lab apron, safety glasses, and plastic gloves. Ar a seashells in a dissecting tray and also identify the anterior and also posterior ends of the clam and also the dorsal, ventral, & lateral surfaces. Figure 1

Figure 1

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situate the umbo, the bang at the anterior end of the valve. This is the oldest part of the seashells shell. Find the hinge ligament i beg your pardon hinges the valves together and also observe the growth rings.

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turn the calm through its dorsal side down and also insert a screwdriver between the ventral edge of the valves. Carefully job-related the tip of the screwdriver between the valves for this reason you perform not jab your hand.

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turn the driver so that the valves are about a centimeter apart. Leave the guideline of the screwdriver in between the valves and place the clam in the pan through the left valve up. Locate the adductor muscles. V your tongue pointing towards the dorsal edge, slide your scalpel between the top valve & the top tissue layer. Reduced down v the anterior adductor muscle, cutting as close to the covering as possible.

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Repeat action 6 in cutting the posterior adductor muscle. Number 2

Figure 2

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bending the left valve back so it lies flat in the tray. Run your fingers along the outside and also the inside of the left valve and also compare the structure of the 2 surfaces.

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research the inside dorsal edge of both valves near the umbo and locate the toothlike projections. Nearby the valves & notification how the toothlike projections interlock. Situate the muscle "scars" ~ above the inner surface ar of the left valve. The adductor muscles to be attached here to host the clam closed. Determine the mantle, the tissue that lines both valves & consist of the soft human body of the clam. Discover the mantle cavity, the room inside the mantle.

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locate two openings top top the posterior end of the clam. The much more ventral opened is the incurrent siphon the carries water into the clam and also the more dorsal opened is the excurrent siphon whereby wastes & water leave.

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through scissors, very closely cut away the half of the mantle the lined the left valve. After ~ removing this component of the mantle, you deserve to see the gills, respiratory tract structures. Watch the muscular foot the the clam, which is ventral to the gills. Keep in mind the hatchet form of the foot offered to burrow right into mud or sand.

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situate the palps, flaplike frameworks that surround & overview food into the clam’s mouth. The palps space anterior to the gills & ventral come the anterior adductor muscle. In ~ the palps, find the mouth.

Figure 3


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with scissors, cut off the ventral portion of the foot. Use the lance to very closely cut the muscle at the peak of the foot into right and left halves. Very closely peel away the muscle great to view the inner organs.

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locate the spongy, yellowish reproductive organs. Ventral come the umbo, find the digestive gland, a greenish framework that surrounding the stomach. Find the long, coiled intestine extending from the stomach. Follow the intestine with the calm. Discover the area near the dorsal surface that the intestine passes through referred to as the pericardial area. Discover the clam’s love in this area.

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proceed following the intestine toward the posterior finish of the clam. Discover the anus just behind the posterior adductor muscle. Use your probe to map the route of food & wastes from the incurrent siphon v the clam come the excurrent siphon. Price the questions on your lab report & label the diagrams the the interior structures the the clam. Also, use arrows top top the clam diagram to map the pathway of food as it travels to the clam’s stomach. Proceed the arrows showing wastes leaving through the anus.

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When you have actually finished dissecting the clam, dispose that the clam as your teacher advises and clean, dry, and return all dissecting tools to the laboratory cart. Wash your hands thoroughly with soap.