R.H. Whittaker gave the five Kingdom category for living organisms. That categorized life organisms based on multiple characteristics such together cellular structure, mode of nutrition, body organization, reproduction, phylogenetic relationship, etc. These five kingdoms were Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia.

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Let’s learn around the plant kingdom, i.e., Kingdom Plantae.

Let us have actually a thorough look in ~ the plant kingdom notes provided here because that the conceptual understanding that the topic.

Also read: Kingdom Animalia, Plantae and also Viruses

Plant Kingdom – Plantae

Kingdom Plantae has all the plants. They space eukaryotic, multicellular and also autotrophic organisms. The plant cell has a rigid cell wall. Plants have chloroplast and also chlorophyll pigment, i beg your pardon is forced for photosynthesis.

Characteristics that Kindom Plantae

The plant kingdom has actually the following characteristic features:

They space non-motile.They do their very own food therefore are referred to as autotrophs.They reproduce asexually through vegetative propagation or sexually.These space multicellular eukaryotes. The tree cell consists of the outer cell wall surface and a large central vacuole.Plants contain photosynthesis pigments dubbed chlorophyll existing in the plastids.They have different organelles for anchorage, reproduction, support and photosynthesis.

Explore More: Photosynthesis.

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Classification the Kingdom Plantae

A plant kingdom is further classified right into subgroups. Group is based on the following criteria:

Plant body: visibility or lack of a well-differentiated plant body. E.g. Root, Stem and also Leaves.Vascular system: presence or absence of a vascular system for the transportation of water and other substances. E.g. Phloem and also Xylem.Seed formation: presence or lack of flowers and also seeds and if the seeds are naked or fastened in a fruit.

More to Read: Seed and also Fruit formation – seed Dispersal

The tree kingdom has been share into 5 subgroups according to the above-mentioned criteria:



Thallophytes absence a well-differentiated body structure and also the plant human body is thallus like.


Thallophytes: Primitive plants wherein the body is not differentiated into stem, roots and also leaves

Thallophyta includes plants through primitive and basic body structure. The plant human body is thallus, they might be filamentous, colonial, branched or unbranched. Examples incorporate green algae, red algae and also brown algae. Usual examples room Volvox, Fucus, Spirogyra, Chara, Polysiphonia, Ulothrix, etc.

Explore More: Thallophytes



Bryophytes: Small, non-vascular tree that favor moist environments

Bryophytes execute not have vascular tissues. The tree body has root-like, stem-like and leaf-like structures. Bryophytes are terrestrial plants but known together “amphibians the the plant kingdom” as they call for water for sex-related reproduction. Castle are present in moist and also shady places. Bryophyta contains mosses, hornworts and also liverworts. Some of the usual examples space Marchantia, Funaria, Sphagnum, Antheoceros, etc.

Extended Reading: Bryophyta


Pteridophytes have actually a well-differentiated tree body into root, stem and also leaves. They have actually a vascular mechanism for conduction the water and also other substances. Some of the typical examples room Selaginella, Equisetum, Pteris, etc.


Pteridophytes: Spore-dispersing vascular plants

More Details: Pteridophyta



Gymnosperms: Vascular plants the possess “exposed” seeds

Gymnosperms have actually a well-differentiated plant body and also vascular tissues. They be afflicted with naked seeds, i.e. Seeds are no enclosed in ~ a fruit. Some of the typical examples of gymnosperms space Cycas, Pinus, Ephedra, etc.



Angiosperms: Vascular plants that possess special qualities such together flowers and fruits

Angiosperms are seed-bearing vascular plants with a well-differentiated tree body. The seed of angiosperms space enclosed in ~ the fruits. Angiosperms room widely distributed and also vary greatly in size, e.g. Wolffia is small measuring about 0.1 cm and Eucalyptus trees are approximately 100 m tall. Angiosperms space further separated into monocotyledons and also dicotyledons according to the variety of cotyledons existing in the seeds. Several of the common examples are mango, rose, tomato, onion, wheat, maize, etc.

Further Reading: Angiosperms

Cryptogams and Phanerogams

The tree kingdom is likewise classified into two groups:

Cryptogams – Non-flowering and also non-seed bearing plants. E.g. Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta

Phanerogams – Flowering and seed-bearing plants. E.g. Gymnosperms, Angiosperms

Also Read: Difference in between Bryophytes and Pteridophytes

To learn an ext about plant kingdom class 11, that is characteristics and also classification, discover BYJU’S biology.

Frequently asked Questions

Name the colours responsible because that photosynthesis in plants.

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Chlorophyll is the pigment responsible for photosynthesis in plants.