In 1855, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow released his most famous poem, The track of Hiawatha. It to be an instant success, propelling Longfellow into literary stardom and also influencing popular society for years to come. In this epic work, Longfellow collection out come honor and also praise indigenous American heritage, however at the exact same time, that laid the structure for stereotypes and also a false assumption that indigenous society was dying in America. Due to the fact that then, the merits and also pitfalls that Hiawatha have been correct debated and its host on American society endures today.

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Anishinaabe PeopleAnishinaabe is a team of culturally-related aboriginal peoples. There room several teams within the Anishinaabe including Ojibwe, Odawa, and also Algonquin people. The languages talked by all of these individuals are known as Anishinaabemowin and also belong come the Algonquian language family. The homelands that the Anishinaabe peoples are in what is at this time Southern Canada and the north U.S.Apostle Islands nationwide Lakeshore in Wisconsin has collected resources and articles top top Objibwe language and also culture.
Longfellow offered rhythmic poetry to convey various indigenous American myths come a popular audience. Primarily, the epic poem highlights the stories of the Ojibwe world of the Lake exceptional region. That main concentrates are the adventures the a fictional Ojibwe hero, Hiawatha, his presents to his people, and his tragic love story v a Dakota woman, Minnehaha. Prior to Hiawatha’s arrival, the reader enjoys various interwoven scenes, such together the instance of the personified south Wind, Shawondasee, fall in love v a dandelion that takes to it is in a golden-haired young woman.Later, Hiawatha’s grandmother drops from the moon, and also he is at some point born. The city traces his life from childhood adventure, fallout’s in rapid love with Minnehaha, marrying, and also losing she from illness. In the end, he leaves after white inhabitants arrive, emotion his time has passed and also that his world will manage. Before this ending, Hiawatha defeat malevolent gods, and also gifts his people with greater crop yields, and the innovation of reading and writing.Longfellow’s city was much much more than a retelling of traditional Ojibwe tales for a white audience. His intent, born out in his creation, was to mold Christian values, europe literary structure and also Native American culture into a single an excellent “American” epos to rival those that the european classics. In therefore doing, Longfellow carried positive attention to the Ojibwe people and also helped spur the conservation of some facets of their culture. However, he also Europeanized your legends and also assimilated their society into the American mainstream. Because of this, Hiawatha has actually a facility legacy that has influenced perceptions of indigenous Americans in this country for end 165 years.
Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Ojibway?Ojibwe is occasionally spelled Ojibwa, Ojibway, or Chippewa. Wait! You might ask – how is there so much confusion end spelling? Ojibwe language originates indigenous Anishinaabemowin, which did not use the Roman personalities we compose the language in today. This provides transliterating Ojibwe names an approximation at best!
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The tune of Hiawatha

barisalcity.org photo, long Collection

Creating an American Epic

Before beginning his career together a respected college professor, and also long prior to he would become widely taken into consideration “America’s poet,” Longfellow traveled generally in Europe. Through the languages and also literature that absorbed, he involved feel that any kind of nation’s identification should be one through its composed word. This fueled his hope for a unique national literature for the unified States, still a relatively young country seeking cultural independence indigenous its estranged parental country.Longfellow was no alone in this desire. Indigenous 1795 till the publication of Hiawatha in 1855, at the very least nineteen American epos poems were published.1 The cumulative goal was to fortify America’s identification through the facility of a national mythology, made up of the cool heroes and also events innate to epic poetry. Ralph Waldo Emerson, a girlfriend of Longfellow’s, expressed eagerness come write about America with a neighborhood focus, shunning explanation of what might only be uncovered overseas.2 this same principles informed Longfellow’s selection of a native American subject issue when he endeavored to produce a national epic.In 1901, Longfellow’s daughter, Alice, reflected that, “an interest in the Indians had actually long to be felt by Mr. Longfellow, and in his beforehand prose sketches, tales around the Indians had actually a place.”3 six years before writing, Longfellow make the acquaintance that Kah-ge-ga-gah-bowh, an Ojibwe academic, advocate and writer, that would carry out some insight for the future work. Seemingly, it to be an undertaking Longfellow pondered for a long time, wanting to execute it justice. He composed in his journal, “I pored end Schoolcraft’s works for nearly three years prior to I addressed to proper something that them to my own use.…” when writing, Longfellow created in his journal, “I have to put a live, beating heart into it .\"While his earnest cross-cultural interest was undoubtable, it need to be discussed that Longfellow likely sensed the famous desire because that a certain factor in a nationwide epic: the it could grant americans a connect to the ancient background of the floor they live on even if his mainly white audience had actually dubious insurance claims to this heritage. As Europe looked earlier to the old Greeks and Romans because that a feeling of distinction, America can look ago to ancient Native American story in the same way. Today, however, we recognize the unfairness innate in the idea.


Criticism because that Hiawatha

The most well-known and modern literary critiques of The song of Hiawatha were focused on the poetic meter (tetrameter, or eight syllables in each line), and the accusation that few of its myths to be lifted indigenous a Finnish epic, The Kalevala. To the assertions the he supplied tetrameter in imitation that The Kalevala, Longfellow protected his decision and stated that the style was not exclusively Finnish. In irradiate of his dependence on scholar Henry Schoolcraft, the is of tiny surprise that Longfellow would choose the form. In the development to one of his very own poems, Schoolcraft suggested, “The measure (tetrameter) is thought to be not ill-adapted come the Indian mode of enunciation. Naught is more characteristic of your harangues (aggressive lectures) and public speeches.”4 the has, in fact, been identified that the bulk of indigenous American stare poems indigenous 1790 come 1849 consisted of mostly tetrameter.5Longfellow sidestepped the cases that some of the legends in Hiawatha to be stolen from The Kalevala. Come Longfellow, what in reality mattered to be the similarities in between his epic poem and the occupational of his scholarly informant, Schoolcraft. Scholars have actually indeed tracked down a Schoolcraft recommendation for practically every information the city paints.6 but while Longfellow may have actually been true come his key source, over there are issues to be uncovered with Schoolcraft.Schoolcraft’s interactions v the Ojibwe began when he to be appointed together an “Indian agent,” or American federal government delegate to native American tribes. The learned the Ojibwe language and society from his wife, Jane, and also her Ojibwe mother, Susan (Ozhaguscodaywayquay). Back Schoolcraft lived among various aboriginal American people for nearly twenty-four years,7 the does not seem to have taken the most open-eyed approach when it cames to the accuracy that what he recorded. He “had reverted with countless volumes the undigested material, material that was periodically inaccurate but always rich through the poetic lore the the tribal mythologies.”8 it is understandable that Longfellow would have actually turned to a resource whose job-related highlighted the culturally-rich literature he sought incentive from, and who can boast of plentiful firsthand experience. Nevertheless, Schoolcraft’s inaccuracies are permanently etched right into Longfellow’s most ambitious poem.


Theatrical portrayal of Hiawatha proposing come Minnehaha

barisalcity.org Photo, Longfellow household Photograph Collection, lengthy Collections

However, not all the divergences in between Hiawatha and Ojibwe legend can be chalked approximately Schoolcraft. Some plot points to be wholly created by Longfellow. One prominent instance is the romance between Hiawatha and Minnehaha. Not only was there no such allude in Schoolcraft, nor without doubt in any Anishinaabe legends, however it was at odds v the structure of Anishinaabe familial life. Anishinaabe households relied on generally recognized relationships, akin to common-law marriages, rather than formal, license is granted marriages. This was routinely a cause of angst because that white american seeking to Anglicize native American groups, even if it is they to be official federal government “Indian” workplaces or missionaries. The officially wooing and wedding plot in Hiawatha was a completely European story dressed in the costumes of aboriginal Americans.Another mistake of Longfellow’s comes to the main character, Hiawatha. Longfellow detailed in his newspaper in June the 1854 the he started “Manabozho\"s an initial adventure.”9 Manabozho, or Nanabozho, a trickster spirit who to be a social hero in Ojibwe legend, to be Longfellow’s basis for his hero. By the really next day, though, Longfellow wrote that he was working on “’Manflbozho;’ or, as I think i shall contact it, ‘Hiawatha,’-- the being one more name because that the exact same Manito.”10 This is a mistake. Hiawatha to be not an additional name because that the Ojibwe trickster, but rather a 16th century Iroquois leader, renowned in his very own right. The true Hiawatha, that aided peace and cooperation among the Iroquois tribes, has had actually his identification overshadowed through the renown that Longfellow’s poem. Longfellow’s editorial discretion goes past his naming mix-up. Objiwe writer and academic Gerald Vizenor explains that Manabozho “represents a spirituality balance in a comic drama fairly than the romantic remove of person contradictions and also evil.\" Longfellow sanitized the important “trickster” nature that Manabozho, transforming him right into an “isolated and also sentimental tragic hero” fairly than the complicated figure the Ojibwe legend.11


This is maybe most obvious in the close up door of the poem. Hiawatha welcomes the white missionaries that arrive, and also urges his people not only to welcome them, but to follow their lead:

Listen to their words the wisdom,Listen to the truth they call you,For the grasp of Life has actually sent themFrom the floor of light and morning!

This step is no from Schoolcraft, and also instead is completely Longfellow’s creation. By attaching the Anishinaabe legends come the arrival of white settlers, Longfellow developed a seamless family tree connecting his American social hero to the expansion of white settlements in the country.


Hiawatha\"s Implications for indigenous Americans

When evaluating the impact that the poem has had on native Americans together a whole, the is necessary to look in ~ both the past and also the present, the great and the bad. Longfellow created in his journal, “I have actually at size hit upon a arrangement for a city on the American Indians... The is to weave with each other their beautiful traditions right into a whole.” In one more statement, the again verified reverence, yet it was accompanied by accept of the prevailing narrative of a dying native American culture. Because that him, albeit, it was a hallowed heritage:

When our aboriginal Indians, who are fast-perishing from the earth, shall have actually left forever the borders of our broad lakes... The dim light of heritage will remainder upon those places, which have seen the glory of their battles, and heard the voice of their eloquence;---and ours land will become, indeed, a classic ground.12

This relegation to the previous served the poem’s main purpose: producing a classic American hero. However while the Hiawatha that the poem ended up being a lovely character, the end of the city sees that leaving, and also the white inhabitants arriving.


Hiawatha pageant

barisalcity.org Photo, Longfellow family Photograph Collection, long Collections

Despite this problematic message, the culture surrounding indigenous reenactments the The track of Hiawatha confirmed to it is in enriching. If adaptations through white casts were well-known for years after publication, the 1880s carried all-Native casts top top the scene. In 1899, Ketegaunseebee Anishinaabe actors in Ontario, Canada began a legacy of yearly performances (pageants), which concerned serve together a catalyst in the direction of deeper study and appreciation of ancestral roots. In addition, performing these pageants often allowed Anishinaabe actors to skirt government regulations bordering their drumming and singing, serving as crucial cultural connector within Anishinaabe communities. Across different Anishinaabe peoples, the practice likewise boosted aboriginal economies. The pervasiveness of these pageants has actually waned in recent years, though.


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Statue the Hiawatha transferring Minnehaha at Minnehaha Falls, Minnesota

barisalcity.org Photo, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Dana papers, long Collections

Today, The tune of Hiawatha is valuable for both the strengths and also weaknesses. There has actually been much valid criticism end the truth that the city did not break native the idea that aboriginal American society would, and should, quickly vanish. This abrasive aspect of the poem have the right to inspire contemporary readers come value and support indigenous culture that endures and thrives. The should additionally be recognized that the poem has actually aided the survive of few of those cultural traditions. Top top the most evident level, at the very least one hundred places names were inspired by the poem and also are in the aboriginal languages the Algonquian and also Siouan13, a small form of preservation. In creating Hiawatha, Longfellow developed the very first major piece of popular culture in which native Americans were illustrated in a heroic light, rather than a patronizing or outright an adverse one. Analysis this city today, modern readers learn the to it is in wary of popular stereotypes and also the need of involving groups when making meaning of your own societies for popular consumption.Ironically, it is Longfellow’s success at his score of assimilating native American society into a great American epic that modern readers most heavily praise and critique. Longfellow’s do the efforts to include Anishinaabe legend in American literature canon was an attempt at inclusivity and one that permitted Anishinaabe peoples to preserve and celebrate their culture, if reaping financial benefits indigenous pageants. ~ above the other hand, Longfellow’s poem played directly into the do the efforts of numerous missionaries and also government Indian agents come assimilate native American people, at the cost of your own social practices.

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While it is tempting to shot and location The track of Hiawatha into a solitary binary group of “good” or “bad,” our strategy to it need to really winter the Anishinaabe mindset, together demonstrated through the trickster Manabozho himself: “holding both good and bad, sacred and also profane, mischief and also honor, in tension.”14


Notes

The complete text of The tune of Hiawatha is obtainable on the Maine historic Society\"s Longfellow city database.