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History 110 - Dr. Gayle Olson-Raymer
The polite War: Goals, Strategies, and also Consequences
To check out the internal components in the Confederate says of America that caused the Confederacy"s defeat.
To understand Lincoln"s presidency, particularly his evolving beliefs about slavery and his duty in passing the controversial 13th Amendment.
Goal #1: To discuss the objectives of the Union and also Confederacy on the night of the polite War
Confederacy - that goal to be to secure self-reliance from the North and to develop an elevation nation free from northern political oppression and also the repression of slavery. The battle from start to finish would it is in a noble crusade because that democracy for white people. This goal to be grounded firmly in the id that the Constitution safeguarded slavery, but the Union had denied that right. Southerners, therefore, had actually the ideal to secede together it to be the only means to safeguard their right to own slaves and their id in states" rights. their actions, therefore, were defensive as they had actually no choice but secession because of the oppressive national politics of the phibìc
Union - Its initial goal was to mediate the Union, while its mid-war goal ended up being to reunite says under a Union in which enslavement was not tolerated. The war from start to finish would it is in a noble crusade because that democracy for all people, not just in America, however throughout the world. This goal to be grounded firmly in the belief that the South had no ideal to secede native the Union and also that secession was treasonous and paramount come an action of war against the Union. their actions, therefore, were defensive as they had no an option but to call for troops ~ the shooting of ft Sumter.
once it came to be clear come Lincoln the the North might lose the war and also would just win with good difficulty, it came to be necessary to change the factor for fighting. releasing the slaves became that reason. Thus, the brand-new Union goal was to retain and reshape the Union - by reuniting the claims under a union the no longer tolerated slavery!
Goal #2: To study the initial political tactics of the Union and also Confederacy
Union Goals. The union initially embraced four strategies:
invade the Confederacy and destroy its will certainly to resist. Obtain the loyalty of the border states - Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri, and also in 1863, West Virginia. This was absolutely important for number of reasons: The border states had 2/3 of the South"s whole white population, 3/4 the the South"s indusrial production, and also over half of all its food and also fuel. Each state to be geographically strategic because that the Union - Kentucky organized a 500-mile border ~ above the Ohio River; Maryland surrounding the Union resources on the north; Missouri border the Mississippi River and also controlled its paths to the west; and also Delaware conrolled accessibility to Philadelphia. Come fight the battle on southerly soil expected marching with hostile border states. and also how go Lincoln acquire the loyalty of the border states? Eventually, all four determined to continue to be in the Union, yet pro-Confederate sympathizers existed in each state and men battled for the Confederacy in all four. In Maryland, an ext than the other states, over there were many Confederate supporters. Maryland remained in the Union under duress; Lincoln claimed martial law, arrested doubt ringleaders of pro-Confederate groups and also held them without trial (by suspending the writ of habeas corpus), and also detained secessionist leaders. As soon as secessionists moved to block Union task in the an initial days the the war, Lincoln stationed Union troops transparent the state and imprisoned most suspected secessionists. In Missouri, an uneasy military rule by Union troops retained them in the Union. Delaware was loyal from the beginning. Kentucky declared neutrality i beg your pardon Lincoln embraced without a fight. A 5th border state was produced in mid-1863 because of deep internal divisions in Virginia. Its western counties refused to support the Confederacy due to the fact that citizens had no servants or attention in slavery. West Virginia was formally admitted to the Union in June 1863. Construct and also maintain a navy blockade of 3,500 miles of
Confederacy purposes . To it is in victorious, the CSA knew the did not require to invade the phibìc or capture a mile of its territory. Its methods were fairly simple:
1. Defend Confederate land. 2. Protect against the phibìc from damaging the Confederate army. 3. Rest the Union"s will to fight.
Goal #3: To research the resources of the Union andConfederacy in ~ the beginning of the war
Total population: Union: 22,300,000; white males = 4,600,000 Confederacy: 9,100,000; white males = 1, 100,000 Union Advantage: 2.5 come 1; white males = 4.2 to 1 Value manufactured goods: Union: $1,730,000,000 Confederacy: $156,000,000 Union Advantage: 11 to 1 Railroad mileage
A Comparative watch of the civil War When the war began: The North held the sheet on populace and economy; South had actually the edge on morale. By the War"s end: the North preserved the economic edge. South"s populace and agricultural base, transportation system, and morale was shattered. Homes, crops, businesses completely destroyed in some areas. Cotton production fell: 4 million bales in 1861; 300,000 in 1865. When the battle began: slavery was undamaged on both sides. By the War"s end: slaves were freed; South had actually lost one-fourth the all slaves who fled to the Union. When the war began: Both sides to be militarily unprepared because that war. Union army of 17,000 was spread throughout the West and also one-third resigned to join the Confederacy. Had actually only 2 generals that had ever before commanded an military - one was Robert E. Lee. Confederacy had plenty of volunteers, however most to be untrained. By the War"s end: About 3.5 million men served ~ above both sides: more than 2 million in the Union. 4 of every 5 standard white southerners served in Confederate Army. In all, nearly 10% that the whole US population served in the War. When the war began: No blacks were allowed to enlist in either the Union or Confederate armies. Union admitted black color soldiers in July 1862, but at a lower rate the pay than white soldiers (equalized in so late 1864). By the War"s end: 186,000 blacks
that mobilized full human and material resources of both sides. It ended in a complete victory the one side over the other. It brought about the complete destruction the the loser"s political, social, and also economic system. That established total control by the winners over the loser"s political, social, and also economic system.
Goal #4: To explore the internal factors in the Confederate claims of America that brought about the Confederacy"s defeat
transparent the an initial three years of the war, the Confederates looked together if they might win. What, then, accounted for your loss?Many have actually pointed to external causations - failure to gain support of european powers, the Union"s strategic shift of objectives, etc.However, a clear evaluation of the war shows that internal difficulties within the Confederate government and military to be the main causations for losing the war. At the very least seven internal factors led come the southerly defeat.
Loss the the border states failure of the south to convince the four border says to secede hurt their debate that South have to secede to safeguard their right to own slaves. The states that continued to be loyal come the Union would have included 45% more white armed forces manpower to the Confederacy and 89% an ext manufacturing capacity.
Absence the centralized/unified politics power and goals. indigenous the beginning of the Confederacy, chairman Jefferson Davis to be unable to develop a feeling of national neighborhood or unity since the federal government was split between Davis and also his followers who believed the Confederacy"s first role to be to for sure the South"s independence, also at the cost of states" rights; matches his evil President, Alexander Stephens, who believed the Confederacy exist to protect slavery and also ensure states" rights.
Southern belief in aristocratic privilege. numerous southerners believed that it to be a "rich man"s war however a bad man"s fight". At the very least 50,000 that the wealthiest southerners paid for your exemptions - $5,000 or more. Two out of every 3 white people who combated owned no slaves. Wartime conditions impacted the rich and poor differentially. As food shortages became an ext acute, the rich began to hoard. The negative suffered so severely the food riots damaged out in 1863 in four Georgia cities and also in north Carolina. In 1864, the price of food soared - a dozen eggs sold for $6; a pound of butter because that $25. The rich paid; the negative starved. southerly aristocracy feeling social course should override military rank. Wealthier soldiers would not obey police officers of plain social rank. Discipline broke down.
Failure to administer enough solutions to satisfy wartime demands. although the South had actually brilliant army leaders and high morale amongst its troops, it lacked the industrial and agricultural ability to assistance its supply food, clothing, shoes, medicine, transportation. Further, it lacked the railroad framework to move much required supplies come the army.
Plantation owners continued to count on noodle crops. Cotton planters were insistent upon elevating cotton because that profit and would not convert their land to food manufacturing for the armies. Confederacy had to happen an impressment plot to feed its militaries - take it food from civilian farms and plantations, by pressure in some areas.
Internal fragmentation of slavery. slaves ran away, part joined the army, rather fled to flexibility behind Union lines. Those who remained on the plantation, undermined the system and also drastically lessened productivity.
Inability come raise sufficient finances to assistance the war. uneven the Union i beg your pardon passed a collection of broad-based taxes and borrowed indigenous the middle and also wealthy classes, the Confederacy covered much less than 5% the its wartime expenditures through taxation and 35% by get loan money. The Confederate conference fiercely opposed taxes on noodle exports and the home of planters (especially slaves) and while wealthy planters had actually enough capital to money a relatively huge part of the war, most refused come buy Confederate bonds. Thus, the Confederacy was compelled to finance about 60% that its war prices with unbacked document money which, in turn, brought about soaring inflation and also counterfeit duplicates of poorly designed and printed Confederate notes.
Goal #5: To understand Lincoln"s presidency, especially his evolving beliefs around slavery and also his role in passing the controversial 13th Amendment
Lincoln to be a product that his time - a complex world overcame by slavery. Thus, once he entered the White House, Lincoln"s attitudes about slavery to be contradictory.
On the one hand, Lincoln was antislavery, as he made clean in his statement the "I am naturally antislavery. If slavery is no wrong, naught is wrong."
On the various other hand, he had a racism streak. He used the native "nigger" and "darky" in conversation, and he thought that blacks, whom he pertained to as physically different from whites, must be exile to Liberia, central America or what else, because they couldn"t live on equal terms v whites in America.
At the beginning of his presidency, Lincoln thought slavery violated America"s an easy principles however he was reluctant to take it dramatic activity against it. He remained so devoted to the American Constitution, v its protections the slavery, the he reluctantly supported the Fugitive slave Act that 1850. At the very same time, that made it clear he would avoid slavery"s west expansion. It was this center course the made Lincoln the Republican"s most attractive presidential candidate in 1860.
During his four years together president, Lincoln emerged as a an excellent leader, one who greatness to be tied in his volume for moral and political growth through genuine engagement with allies and also critics alike. And his greatest development was his eventual belief that the slaves must be freed via one amendment come the structure that would certainly guarantee their freedom at the end of the war.
In his in march 4, 1865 2nd Inaugural Address, he states that everybody knows that slavery was the cause of the war ("American slavery" not southerly slavery) and warns that we may have to resolve the "terrible" consequences of the "legacy of slavery" because that generations come come.
Lincoln"s attributes - "intellectually curious, ready to listen to criticism, with splash to the currents of north public opinion, and also desirous that getting in addition to Congress" - shows that he would have controlled Reconstruction better than his much less qualified and also stubborn successor, Andrew Johnson.
Lincoln"s role in pass the 13th Amendment. According come Doris Kearns Goodwin"s Team that Rivals (2005):
Lincoln to be a crafty politician and also a visionary, courageous leader. "I am the president of the united States, clothed in tremendous power," Lincoln says and also he supplies that power. In order to acquire the 13th amendment passed, he required 20 impossible votes in the house of Representatives. Thus, the instructs his agents to trade political appointments because that the votes of home members who had lost your seats in the election. Lincoln plays fast-and-loose through the truth, promising one faction he"ll meet with a tranquility commission native the Confederacy while reassuring another there would certainly be no together talks.
Lincoln was standing in the middle of a great political fight between the Radical Republicans and also the Conservative republic in the United says Congress: the Radical Republicans saw emancipation as the main focus of the war, if Conservative Republicans thought preserving the union was more important 보다 emancipation.
At the begin of the battle he believed that keeping the Union was the most necessary thing, and also that emancipation to be something that he to be not certain he had actually the appropriate to tackle since it was Constitutionally protected.
As the battle continued, Lincoln involved understand that, as president, he had powers as commander-in-chief once a army necessity was at issue to be able to do something around the slaves. The servants were being supplied to aid the south - castle dug the trenches, cooked because that the soldiers, and protected the residence front once the soldiers went off to war. These facts permitted him to assistance emancipation as a armed forces necessity. And to carry out that, he needed a constitutional amendment to finish slavery - and thus he relocated to the radical next of the party.
Lincoln became such an support of emancipation that he supported and also used his political clout to help pass the controversial 13th Amendment releasing the slaves. He concerned this decision largely since he interpreted that the Emancipation Proclamation to be a war time act and as such, could be ignored when the battle was over. Only a constitution Amendment would prohibit the claims coming back into the union from re-establishing slavery.
Lincoln, Gettysburg, and the Gettysburg Address. For three days - July 1 to July 3, 1863 - general Robert E. Lee"s Confederate military clashed with the basic George Meade"s army of the potomac at Gettysburg, some 35 miles southwest that Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. It confirmed to be one of the most violent battles of the war; of approximately 170,000 Union and also Confederate soldiers who combated in the three-day battle, 23,000 Union soldiers (more 보다 one-quarter of the army"s efficient forces) and also 28,000 Confederates soldiers (more 보다 a 3rd of Lee’s army) were killed, injured or missing. It was a crushing defeat for the Confederacy, and a much-needed win for the Union.
In the next couple of months, David Wills that was a local attorney began efforts to produce a nationwide cemetery in ~ Gettysburg. The cemetary"s dedication was set for mid-November and also Edward Everett - the former president that Harvard College, previous U.S. Senator and former secretary that state - was asked to it is in the keynote speaker. ~ above November 2, Wills asked chairman Lincoln to sign up with him come "set apart these grounds come their spiritual use by a couple of appropriate remarks." once he received the invitation to do the remarks in ~ Gettysburg, Lincoln experienced an chance to do a vast statement to the American people on the enormous significance that the war, and also he closely prepared his speech.
top top the morning that November 19, Everett ceded his two-hour speech (from memory) ~ above the fight of Gettysburg come a crowd of about 15,000 people. Lincoln followed, offering his 272-word speech that lasted less than 2 minutes. What numerous historians think is both the lasting and radical aspect of the speech started with Lincoln"s insurance claim that the explanation of freedom - not the constitution - to be the true expression that the starting fathers" intentions for your new nation when they claimed that the country formed in 1776 to be "dedicated to the proposition that all men are developed equal." Thus, Lincoln"s historic resolve redefined the Civil war as a battle not simply for the Union, but additionally for the rule of human being equality. Historians proceed to applaud the importance of the Gettysburg resolve in the 21st Century - http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/gettysburg-address.
The 151st anniversary that Lincoln"s delivery of the attend to will it is in November 18, 2014. Check out the resolve here in ~ http://www.abrahamlincolnonline.org/lincoln/speeches/gettysburg.htm. For extra credit, learn the attend to and submit it in ~ http://www.learntheaddress.org/#HNc78gzKk5w.
Goal #6: To understand the aftermath of the civil War
Until the 20th Century, most historians accepted the complying with statistics around Civil War human being costs:
Over 620,000 Americans passed away (360,000 Union; 260,000 Confederate). 2 of every three died of disease.
One-fourth that the South"s men of military period died.
One-fifth of every the black color soldiers (about 37,000) died in the War.
One in 13 white men of military period died and 163,000 white ladies were widowed.
Some tiny towns whose young men had joined in a solitary regiment lost their whole populations of young men.
However, newer estimates have been said by historian David J. Hacker in his December, 2011article, "A Census-Based counting of the Civil battle Dead:"
About 750,000 Americans passed away - 20 percent more than formerly estimated. Today, this would analyze into 7.6 million American deaths in a modern-day war.
Slavery was prohibited in the United states - yet slaves received tiny political, social, or financial equality.
After the war, a legal framework for equality was developed in the kind of the 13, 14, 15th Amendments and the Civil rights Act the 1875. However, legal legal rights for freedmen and women not only failed come bring around their equality in American life, it likewise failed to lug an finish to racism in American culture or to water level in a duration of economic freedom for African Americans.
Those supporting egalitarian civil liberties for the freed blacks were soundly defeated. The Civil war was a complicated struggle in between four groups: Confederates, Unionists, abolitionists, and egalitarians. The an initial three to be victorious by 1877 - just the egalitarians lost the war.
Confederates and also Unionists - in ~ 12 year after the battle was over, the North and also South were financially reunited and also the nation"s economic climate was on the means to make the U.S. The world"s leading commercial power.
Egalitarians - they lost, not only due to the fact that the amendments had actually no means to insurance equality in the South, but since white supremacy continued in the kind of Jim crow laws.
Emancipation merely compelled white civilization - in the North and also South - to redefine your world, yet not to readjust their racialism opinions around black people.
Human losses: 1/4 of the South"s men died - 260,000 Confederate soldiers; one more 190,000 to be wounded.
financial structure was ruined - specifically given that they lost virtually their whole labor pressure with passage of the 13th Amendment.
lot of the best agricultural land in Virginia, Tennessee, Mississippi, Georgia, and South Carolina to be destroyed.
Cotton plants were damaged - retreating Confederates melted most crops to prevent record by commonwealth troops; staying cotton to be confiscated by Union agents together contraband of war.
Centralized, federal power, no decentralized state power was the victorious layout for the United claims government.
The Union"s win ensured that the us was no a spontaneous union of can be fried states, however instead was a single nation in i m sorry the federal federal government took precedence end the individual states.
Before the War, the United says was supplied as a many noun - the United claims are; after the War, the United states was supplied as a singular noun - the United claims is.
The financial structures were laid because that the contemporary industrial state.
Government safety by both the north and also south increased substantially during the war.
The Lost cause Argument obtained credence in the South. together such, it said the following:
Slavery was just one worry in the war; it was not necessary or main to the war"s causation; the actual reason because that the war was a difference of opinion around the Constitution.
The South believed that the North had actually seriously minimal their constitutional rights and also the ideal of the Southern says to do their very own political, economic, and also social decisions.
The real worry then, was not slavery but liberty - the require of the south to liberate chin from the be suppressive of northern industrialists who advanced their interests v taxes, rail subsidies, and also growing industrialization at the expense of southerly planters and also farmers.
The Confederate soldiers not only fought a noble fight of respect in the surname of liberty, they also fought a far better fight than the enemy. Lock were defeated only by"overwhelming numbers and also resources" together Robert E. Lee told his grieving soldiers at Appomattox.
southerly whites were the victims of the war of north Aggression which attempted to plunder Southerners of your liberty. The Confederate flag stands not for slavery, however for a courageous find for liberty in the face of such aggression.
Many modern-day historians argue that the south did no secede for either states civil liberties or liberty - however rather to defend the college of slavery.
Surviving Southerners prefer Jefferson Davis and Vice-President Stephens developed the Lost cause myth to aid southern whites resolve the shattering reality of a catastrophic loss in a battle they felt certain they would certainly win.
In the end, historian Gary Gallagher notes in The legend of the shed Cause, "White Southerners arised from the civil War extensively beaten yet largely unrepentant."
Shortly after troops of the newly claimed Confederate says of America bombed Union soldiers at ft Sumter, president Lincoln - not Congress - claimed war and mobilized the political, economic, diplomatic, psychological, and military sources of the nation. He asserted he had actually the ideal to carry out so as Commander in Chief. However the constitution is silent on the definition of the strength of the president together commander in chief. There to be no clean precedents because that Lincoln.
Thus, Lincoln established the precedent by defining his function as commander in Chief. He said that he could bi-pass Congress and also use executive orders to raise an army. Just how did he justify this?
once the CSA fired on ft Sumter, conference was no in session and also was not due to come earlier to Washington until the finish of summer. Lincoln make his decision to explain war and also then referred to as a special session which met on July 4, 1861. Further, that argued, his oath of office compelled him come "preserve, protect, and defend" the Constitution and this duty overrode any particular constitutional limit on executive action. The President claimed he had actually "the war power" - and to not declare this war power can have forced him come "surrender the existence of the Government." however the Constitution provides no point out of "war power." according to historian James McPherson, "Lincoln seems to have invented both the phrase and its application." (Tried through War: 24)
He climate ordered military authorities come arrest and also detain there is no trial those in the northern and also border claims who aided the rebel cause, were believed to it is in Confederate spies, and also who withstood the breeze - and detained many of them till the war"s conclusion.
The polite War came to be the ingredient of legend - a subject that has actually been unending studied and also examined by historians and laypersons alike. And why has actually it end up being what many civilization have called it - the war that never goes away?
Human cost almost equals the variety of American soldiers who dealt with in all various other years linked - such a ghastly toll is both horrifying and also hypnotically fascinating.
Human interest story fascinate Americans. The battle pitted brother against brother, cousin versus cousin, father versus son. In southern Carolina, Brigadier general Thomas Drayton fought versus his brother, Perceal, a captain in the Union Navy, at the battle of port Royal.
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The polite War offers a historic backdrop for the Civil legal rights Movement. The polite Rights movement is often called the 2nd Civil War because it was just then the African Americans gained real political, social, and also economic strength - power that had been given to them after the war via the 13th, 14th, and also 15th Amendments, but which Jim raven Laws had actually denied.