L>Abraham Lincoln"s speech at the Wisconsin State fair
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Address prior to the Wisconsin State agricultural Society

Milwaukee, WisconsinSeptember 30, 1859
When Abraham Lincoln gave this decided at the Wisconsin fair, americans knew him as the increasing Republican politician who disputed Stephen Douglas throughout a U.S. Senate race. One year later he would certainly be chosen president, and also two years after that he signed the bill establishing the U.S. Department of Agriculture. In 1859 the fair was held on property currently owned by Marquette University. You deserve to see a mite commemorating the event at the interesection the 13th Street and also Wells Street. Compared to his political speeches, this effort suffers indigenous tedium, yet it has interesting i on totally free labor and also education. That exhorted his audience come "prefer totally free labor, through its organic companion, education." that saw agriculture as an opportunity for "cultivated thought," saying, "Every blade of grass is a study; and to produce two, whereby there was however one, is both a profit and also a pleasure."Members of the Agricultural society and citizens of Wisconsin:Agricultural Fairs are ending up being an institution of the country; lock are helpful in much more ways than one; they carry us together, and thereby make us far better acquainted, and much better friends 보다 we otherwise would be. From the an initial appearance of man upon the earth, down to very recent times, the words "stranger" and also "enemy" were fairly or almost, synonymous. Long after civilized nations had defined robbery and also murder as high crimes, and also had affixed significant punishments to them, when practiced amongst and upon your own world respectively, the was considered no offence, however even meritorious, to rob, and murder, and enslave strangers, whether as nations or as individuals. Also yet, this has actually not totally disappeared. The male of the greatest moral cultivation, in spite of all which abstract principle have the right to do, likes him whom he walk know, much far better than him whom he does no know. To exactly the evils, great and small, which feather from desire of sympathy, and also from hopeful enmity, amongst strangers, as nations, or as individuals, is among the highest functions of civilization. To this end our agricultural Fairs contribute in no small degree. Lock make an ext pleasant, and more strong, and much more durable, the bond of social and also political union among us. Again, if together Pope declares, "happiness is our being"s end and also aim," our Fairs add much to the end and aim, together occasions of recreation -- together holidays. Comprised as male is, he has positive require of sometimes recreation; and also whatever can provide him this, connected with virtue and also advantage, and cost-free from vice and disadvantage, is a confident good. Together recreation our Fairs afford. They space a existing pleasure, to be followed by no pain, together a consequence; they space a current pleasure, making the future an ext pleasant.But the chief use of farming fairs is to aid in boosting the great calling that agriculture, in all it"s departments, and minute divisions -- to make mutual exchange of farming discovery, information, and also knowledge; therefore that, at the end, all may know every thing, i beg your pardon may have actually been known to yet one, or to but a few, at the start -- to lug together specifically all i m sorry is an alleged to no be generally known, due to the fact that of recent discovery, or invention.And not just to carry together, and to impart every which has actually been accidentally uncovered or invented upon ordinary motive; but, by interesting emulation, because that premiums, and for the pride and honor that success -- that triumph, in some sort -- come stimulate the discovery and invention right into extraordinary activity. In this, this Fairs are kindred to the patent clause in the constitution of the unified States; and also to the department, and also practical system, based upon that clause.One feature, i believe, of every fair, is a consistent address. The Agricultural society of the young, prosperous, and soon to be, great State that Wisconsin, has actually done me the high respect of picking me to make that deal with upon this occasion -- an honor because that which ns make mine profound, and also grateful acknowledgement.I presume ns am not supposed to employ the moment assigned me, in the mere flattery the the farmers, as a class. Mine opinion of castle is that, in proportion to numbers, they are neither much better nor worse than any type of other class; and also I believe there yes, really are more attempts in ~ flattering lock than any kind of other; the reason of which i cannot perceive, unless it be the they deserve to cast more votes than any type of other. On reflection, ns am not fairly sure that there is not reason of suspicion versus you, in choosing me, in some kind a politician, and also in no sort a farmer, to deal with you.But farmers, being the most numerous class, it complies with that their interest is the biggest interest. It additionally follows that that interest is many worthy of every to be cherished and cultivated -- the if over there be inescapable conflict in between that interest and any other, the other have to yield.Again, I suppose it is not meant of me to impart to friend much certain information ~ above Agriculture. You have no factor to believe, and also do not believe, that ns possess it -- if the were what you seek in this address, any one of your own number, or class, would be an ext able to furnish it.You, perhaps, perform expect me to offer some basic interest come the occasion; and also to do some basic suggestions, on handy matters. I shall effort nothing more. And also in such suggestions by me, quite likely very little will be brand-new to you, and also a big part the the rest possibly currently known to be erroneous.My first suggestion is an inquiry as to the result of better thoroughness in all the departments of agriculture than now prevails in the North-West -- perhaps I can say in America. To speak completely within bounds, that is recognized that fifty bushels of wheat, or one hundred bushels the Indian corn have the right to be created from an acre. Much less than a year earlier I witnessed it stated that a man, by especially care and also labor, had developed of wheat, what was same to 2 hundred bushels indigenous an acre. Yet take fifty that wheat, and one hundred of corn, to be the possibility, and compare v it the actual plants of the country. Countless years back I witnessed it stated in a Patent Office Report the eighteen bushels to be the average crop throughout the wheat growing region of the unified States; and this year an clever farmer that Illinois, assured me that hedid not believe the land harvest in that State this season, had actually yielded much more than an average of eight bushels to the acre. The brag crop I heard that in our vicinity was 2 thousand bushels native ninety acres. Many crops were thrashed, developing no more than three bushels to the acre; lot was cut, and then abandoned as no worth threshing; and much was exit as not worth cutting. Regarding Indian corn, and also indeed, most other crops, the case has no been lot better. For the last four years I do not believe the floor planted with corn in Illinois, has created an typical of twenty bushels to the acre. The is true, the heretofore we have actually had far better crops, through no better cultivators; yet I believe it is additionally true that the soil has actually never been thrust up come one-half the its capacity.What would certainly be the result upon the agriculture interest, to press the soil as much as something near its full capacity? Unquestionably it will certainly take more labor to create fifty bushels indigenous an acre, 보다 it will certainly to create ten bushes from the exact same acre. However will the take an ext labor to produce fifty bushes native one acre, 보다 from five? Unquestionably, thorough farming will require much more labor to the acre; however will it require an ext to the bushel? If it should require just as lot to the bushel, there room some probable, and several certain, advantages in donate of the thorough practice. The is probable it would develope those unknown causes, or develope unknown cures for those causes, which of late years have reduced down our crops listed below their previous average. The is almost certain, i think, the in the deeper plowing, evaluation of soils, experiments with manures, and also varieties that seeds, observance the seasons, and also the like, these situations would be found. The is certain that thorough farming would spare fifty percent or more than half, the cost of land, simply because the very same product would certainly be gained from half, or from much less than fifty percent the amount of land. This proposition is self-evident, and also can it is in made no plainer by repetitions or illustrations. The cost of land is a great item, also in brand-new countries; and also constantly grow greater and greater, in compare with other items, as the country grows older.It also would spare a huge proportion the the making and also maintaining the inclosures -- the same, whether these inclosures should be hedges, ditches, or fences. This again, is a heavy item -- hefty at first, and also heavy in its regular demand for repairs. I remember as soon as being greatly astonished by an apparently authentic exhibition the the ratio the cost of inclosures bear to all the other expenses of the farmer; though I deserve to not remember precisely what the proportion was. Any type of farmer, if that will, have the right to ascertain the in his own case, because that himself.Again, a an excellent amount that "locomotion" is forgive by thoroughly cultivation. Take it fifty bushes that wheat, prepared for the harvest, standing top top a solitary acre, and also it have the right to be harvested in any of the well-known ways, with much less than half the job which would be compelled if that were spread out over 5 acres. This would be true, if reduced by the old hand sickle; true, to a greater extent if through the scythe and also cradle; and also to a still higher extend, if through the equipments now in use. These equipments are chiefly valuable, together a way of substituting animal power for the power of guys in this branch of farm yard work. In the highest level of perfection yet reached in using the horse power come harvesting, totally nine-tenths that the strength is expended by the pet in transferring himself and also dragging the machine over the field, leaving certainly not more than one-tenth to be applied directly to the only end of the totality operation -- the collection in the grain, and also clipping the the straw. As soon as grain is very thin on the ground, the is always more or much less intermingled v weeds, chess and also the like, and a big part that the power is expended in cut these. The is plain that as soon as the crop is very thick upon the ground, the larger proportion that the strength is directly applied to collection in and also cutting it; and the smaller, to that which is entirely useless together an end. And what I have said of harvest is true, in a greater or less level of mowing, plowing, collection in of plants generally, and, indeed, of virtually all farm yard work.The impact of thorough cultivation upon the farmer"s very own mind, and, in reaction with his mind, back upon his business, is probably quite same to any type of other the its effects. Every male is proud of what he does well; and no man is proud of what he does not do well. With the former, his love is in his work; and also he will do twice as lot of the with much less fatigue. The latter performs a small imperfectly, looks at it in disgust, transforms from it, and also imagines self exceedingly tired. The tiny he has actually done, concerns nothing, for desire of finishing.The man who produces a good full chop will scarcely ever before let any component of it go to waste. That will save up the enclosure about it, and enable neither man nor beast to trespass upon it. He will certainly gather that in due season and store it in perfect security. Therefore he labors with satisfaction, and saves self the totality fruit of his labor. The other, beginning with no function for a full crop, labors less, and also with much less satisfaction; permits his fences to fall, and also cattle to trespass; gathers not in early season, or no at all. Thus the job he has performed, is wasted away, little by little, it rotates in the end, the derives scarcely anything from it.The ambitious for large acres leads to poor farming, even withmen of energy. I scarcely ever before knew a mammoth farm yard to sustain itself; much less to return a profit upon the outlay. Ns have more than once well-known a male to invest a respectable fortune ~ above one; fail and also leave it; and also then some guy of more modest aims, get a small portion of the ground, and also make a good living top top it. Mammoth ranches are like tools or weapons, which are too heavy to it is in handled. Ere long they room thrown aside, in ~ a great loss.The successful application of vapor power, to farm occupational is a desideratum -- particularly a heavy steam Plow. It is no enough, the a an equipment operated by steam, will certainly really plow. To be successful, that must, all things considered, plow much better than can be excellent with pet power. It must do all the occupational as well, and cheaper; or much more rapidly, so as to get through an ext perfectly in season; or in some means afford an benefit over plowing through animals, rather it is no success. I have actually never watched a maker intended for a steam Plow. Much praise, and also admiration, room bestowed upon few of them; and they may be, for aught i know, currently successful; but I have not perceived the demonstrate of it. I have thought a great deal, in an summary way, about a heavy steam Plow. That one i m sorry shall be so contrived together to apply the bigger proportion that its power to the cutting and transforming the soil, and the smallest, to the relocating itself over the field, will be the finest one. A very small stationary engine would draw a big gang that plows with the ground indigenous a quick distance come itself; however when the is no stationary, but has to move along favor a horse, dragging the plows after it, it must have additional power to bring itself; and also the challenge grows by what is plan to conquer it; for what to add power likewise adds size, and weight come the machine, therefore increasing again, the need for power. Intend you have to construct the device so as to cut a sequence of brief furrows, to speak a stick in length, transversely to the food the machine is locomoting, something like the shuttle in weaving. In such case the whole an equipment would relocate North just the width of a furrow, when in length, the furrow would certainly be arod from east to West. In together case, a very big proportion of the power, would be applied to the actual plowing. However in this, too, there would be a difficulty, which would be the gaining of the plow into, and out of, the ground, in ~ the ends of all these short furrows.I believe, however, ingenious males will, if they have not already, conquer the difficulty I have actually suggested. Yet there is quiet another, about which ns am much less sanguine. It is the it is provided of fuel, and also especially of water, to make steam. Such supply is plainly practicable, yet can the price of it it is in borne? Steamboats live ~ above the water, and find your fuel at proclaimed places. Steam mills, and also other stationary heavy steam machinery, have actually their stationary offers of fuel and water. Railroad locomotives have actually their continual wood and also water station. But the steam plow is much less fortunate. It does not live ~ above the water; and if it be once at a water station, the will job-related away from it, and when it it s okay away have the right to not return, there is no leaving its work, in ~ a great expense that its time and strength. That will occur that a wagon and horse team could be work to supply it with fuel and also water; however this, too, is expensive; and the inquiry recurs, "can the cost be borne?" when this is included to all other expenses, will certainly not the plowing cost more than in the old way?It is to be hoped the the heavy steam plow will be lastly successful, and also if that shall be, "thorough cultivation" -- putting the floor to the height of its volume -- creating the largest crop possible from a offered quantity of ground -- will certainly be most favorable come it. Act a big amount of occupational upon a little quantity the ground, it will certainly be, as nearly as possible, stationary if working, and as cost-free as feasible from locomotion; hence expending its strength as lot as possible upon that is work, and also as tiny as feasible in travelling. Our thanks, and also something more substantial 보다 thanks, are as result of every man involved in the effort to develop a successful heavy steam plow. Even the not successful will carry something to light, which, in the hand of others, will contribute to the final success. I have actually not stated difficulties, in order come discourage, but in order the being seen, they may be the an ext readily overcome.The civilization is agreed that labor is the resource from which human wants are greatly supplied. Over there is no dispute upon this point. Indigenous this point, however, men immediately diverge. Lot disputation is maintained regarding the best way of applying and controlling the labor element. By some it is assumed the labor is obtainable only in connection with capital -- that nobody labors, uneven somebody else, owning capital, somehow, through the use of the capital, induces the to carry out it. Having assumed this, they proceed to take into consideration whether that is finest that funding shall rental laborers, and also thus induce them to work by their own consent; or purchase them, and drive them come it without your consent. Having proceeded so much they naturally conclude the all laborers space necessarily one of two people hiredlaborers, or slaves. They more assume the whoever is once a rental laborer, is fatally solved in that problem for life; and thence again the his problem is as negative as, or worse than that the a slave. This is the "mud-sill" theory.But an additional class of reasoners hold the opinion that there is no such relation in between capital and also labor, as assumed; and also that there is no such point as a freeman being fatally resolved for life, in the condition of a hired laborer, the both these assumptions are false, and also all inferences native them groundless. They hold that labor is former to, and also independent of, capital; that, in fact, funding is the fruit the labor, and could never have existed if labor had not first existed -- the labor have the right to exist there is no capital, but that capital could never have existed without labor. Therefore they hold that job is the remarkable -- significantly the exceptional -- that capital.They carry out not deny the there is, and probably constantly will be, a relation between labor and also capital. The error, together they hold, is in assuming the the entirety labor that the human being exists within the relation. A few men own capital; and also that couple of avoid job themselves, and with your capital, hire, or buy, another few to labor for them. A large majority belong come neither course -- neither work for others, nor have others functioning for them. Also in all our slave States, except South Carolina, a majority of the whole human being of every colors, room neither slaves nor masters. In these cost-free States, a big majority are neither hirers or hired. Men, through their households -- wives, sons and also daughters -- job-related for themselves, on your farms, in your houses and in your shops, acquisition the whole product come themselves, and asking no favors of funding on the one hand, nor of hirelings or slaves on the other. That is no forgotten the a considerable number of persons mingle their own labor with capital; that is, labor v their own hands, and additionally buy servants or hire freemen to labor for them; but this is just a mixed, and not a distinct class. No principle stated is disturbed by the existence of this blended class. Again, as has already been said, the opponents of the "mud-sill" theory urge that there is not, of necessity, any type of such thing as the free hired laborer being resolved to that condition for life. There is demonstration because that saying this. Plenty of independent men, in this assembly, doubtless a couple of years earlier were hired laborers. And also their case is practically if not quite the general rule.The prudent, penniless beginner in the world, labors for wages awhile, saves a surplus with which come buy tools or land, because that himself; climate labors ~ above his own account another while, and at size hires another new beginner to help him. This, speak its advocates, is totally free labor -- the just and generous, and prosperous system, which opens the way for every -- provides hope to all, and also energy, and progress, and advancement of condition to all. If any type of continue with life in the problem of the rental laborer, the is no the error of the system, but due to the fact that of either a dependence nature i beg your pardon prefers it, or improvidence, folly, or singular misfortune. I have said this much around the elements of labor generally, together introductory come the consideration of a brand-new phase which that aspect is in process of assuming. The old general rule was that educated human being did not perform hands-on labor. They controlled to eat your bread, leaving the toil of developing it come the uneducated. This was not an insupportable angry to the working bees, so lengthy as the class of drones remained very small. Yet now, specifically in these cost-free States, virtually all room educated -- fairly too practically all, to leave the job of theuneducated, in any wise sufficient to the assistance of the whole. It follows from this that henceforth educated human being must labor. Otherwise, education and learning itself would come to be a positive and also intolerable evil. No country can sustain, in idleness, more than a little per centage of its numbers. The good majority have to labor at something productive. From this premises the problem springs, "How can labor and also education it is in the many satisfactory combined?"By the "mud-sill" theory it is assumed that labor and also education space incompatible; and any practical mix of lock impossible. Follow to the theory, a blind horse upon a tread-mill, is a perfect illustration that what a laborer must be -- every the far better for being blind, the he can not tread out of place, or absent understandingly. Follow to the theory, the education of laborers, is not only useless, however pernicious, and also dangerous. In fact, the is, in part sort, deemed a misfortune that laborers should have heads in ~ all. Those very same heads are pertained to as explosive materials, just to be safely preserved in wet places, as much as possible from that strange sort the fire i m sorry ignites them. A Yankee who can invent solid handed male without a head would get the everlasting gratitude of the "mud-sill" advocates.But totally free Labor says "no!" complimentary Labor suggests that, together the author of man makes every individual with one head and also one pair of hands, it was most likely intended that heads and hands must cooperate as friends; and that that particular head, must direct and control that certain pair of hands. Together each man has one mouth to it is in fed, and one pair of hands to furnish food, that was probably intended that that details pair that hands should feed that certain mouth -- that each head is the organic guardian, director, and protector the the hands and mouth inseparably linked with it; and that being so, every head have to be cultivated, and improved, by whatever will add to its capacity for performing that is charge. In one word free Labor insists on global education.I have so far declared the opposite theory of "Mud-Sill" and "Free Labor" there is no declaring any kind of preference of my own in between them. On an occasion favor this i ought no to declare any. Ns suppose, however, ns shall not be mistaken, in assuming together a fact, the the human being of Wisconsin prefer free labor, through its herbal companion, education.This leads to the additional reflection, the no other human occupation opens up so wide a field for the financially rewarding and agreeable mix of labor with cultivated thought, together agriculture. I know of nothing so satisfied to the mind, as the exploration of anything i beg your pardon is in ~ once new and an useful -- nothing which for this reason lightens and also sweetens toil, together the optimistic pursuit of together discovery. And how vast, and how differed a ar is agriculture, for such discovery. The mind, currently trained come thought, in the nation school, or higher school, can not fail to uncover there an exhaustless source of profitable enjoyment. Every tongue of grass is a study; and also to develop two, wherein there was but one, is both a profit and a pleasure. And also not grass alone; but soils, seeds, and also seasons -- hedges, ditches, and fences, draining, droughts, and irrigation -- plowing, hoeing, and also harrowing -- reaping, mowing, and threshing -- conserving crops, pests of crops, diseases of crops, and also what will stop or cure castle -- implements, utensils, and also machines, their loved one merits, and also to boost them -- hogs, horses, and also cattle -- sheep, goats, and poultry -- trees, shrubs, fruits, plants, and flowers -- the thousand points of i beg your pardon these room specimens -- each a human being of study within itself.In all this, book-learning is available. A capacity, and also taste, because that reading, gives accessibility to every little thing has currently been discovered by others. It is the key, or one of the keys, come the currently solved problems. And not just so. It gives a relish, and also facility, for successfully pursuing the unsolved ones. The rudiments that science, room available, and highly valuable. Some understanding of Botany assists in taking care of the vegetable civilization -- with all farming crops. Chemistry assists in the analysis of soils, selection, and application that manures, and also in plenty of other ways. The mechanical branches of herbal Philosophy, space ready aid in virtually everything; but especially in reference to implements and also machinery.The believed recurs that education -- grew thought -- can finest be combined with farming labor, or any labor, ~ above the principle of thorough work -- the careless, half performed, slovenly work, makes no location for such combination. And also thorough work, again, renders sufficient, the smallest amount of floor to each man. And also this again, conforms come what must occur in a human being less inclined come wars, and more devoted to the art of peace, 보다 heretofore. Populace must increase rapidly -- more rapidly than in former times -- and ere long the most valuable of every arts, will be the arts of deriving a comfortable subsistence from the smallest area that soil. No neighborhood whose every member possesses this art, can ever be the victim of oppression of any type of of that forms. Such ar will it is in alike live independence of crowned-kings, money-kings, and land-kings.But, follow to your programme, the awarding that premiums awaits the closeup of the door of this address. Considering the deep attention necessarily in connection with to that performance, it would certainly be no wonder if i am already heard with some impatience. I will certainly detain you but a minute longer. Several of you will be successful, and such will require but little philosophy to take them residence in please spirits; others will be disappointed, and also will be in a much less happy mood. To such, let it be said, "Lay it no too much to heart." let them embrace the maxim, "Better luck next time;" and then, by put in order exertion, make that much better luck because that themselves.And through the successful, and also the unsuccessful, permit it it is in remembered, that while occasions choose the present, lug their sober and also durable benefits, the exultations and also mortifictions of them, are however temporary; the the victor shall soon be the vanquished, if that relax in his exertion; and that the vanquished this year, might be victor the next, in spite of all competition.It is claimed an east monarch when charged his wise men to design him a sentence, come be ever before in view, and which have to be true and also appropriate in every times and also situations. They gift him the words: "And this, too, shall happen away." exactly how much that expresses! how chastening in the hour of pride! -- just how consoling in the depth of affliction! "And this, too, shall happen away." and also yet let us hope that is not quite true. Let united state hope, rather, that by the best cultivation of the physical world, beneath and also around us; and also the intellectual and moral civilization within us, we shall secure an individual, social, and also political prosperity and happiness, whose course shall be onward and upward, and also which, while the earth endures, shall no pass away.Source: gathered Works the Abraham Lincoln, edited through Roy P. Basler et al.Home |News |Education | Timelines | places |Resources |Books | Speeches |Index |Search Lincoln"s writings room in the public domain; this development © 2020 Abraham Lincoln Online.

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