Muse through barbiton, Paestan red-figure lekanis C4th B.C., Musée du Louvre

THE MOUSAI (Muses) to be the goddesses of music, song and also dance, and the source of incentive to poets. They were additionally goddesses the knowledge, that remembered all things that had pertained to pass. Later the Mousai to be assigned particular artistic spheres: Kalliope (Calliope), epic poetry; Kleio (Clio), history; Ourania (Urania), astronomy; Thaleia (Thalia), comedy; Melpomene, tragedy; Polymnia (Polyhymnia), spiritual hymns; Erato, erotic poetry; Euterpe, lyric poetry; and also Terpsikhore (Terpsichore), choral song and also dance.

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In ancient Greek vase painting the Mousai were depicted as beautiful young women with a range of music intruments. In later on art each of the nine to be assigned her own distinctive attribute.

There to be two alternate sets the Mousai--the 3 or four Mousai Titanides and the three Mousai Apollonides.



<1.1> ZEUS & MNEMOSYNE (Hesiod Theogony 1 & 915, Mimnermus Frag, Alcman Frag 8, Solon Frag 13, Apollodorus 1.13, Pausanias 1.2.5, Diodorus Siculus 4.7.1, Orphic Hymns 76 & 77, Antoninus Liberalis 9, Cicero De Natura Deorum 3.21, Arnobius 3.37)<1.2> ZEUS (Homer Odyssey 8.457, Homeric Hymns 32, et al)<1.3> MNEMOSYNE (Pindar Paean 7, Terpander Frag 4, Aristotle Frag 842, Plato Theaetetus 191c)<2.1> OURANOS & GAIA (Alcman Frag 67, Mnaseas Frag, Diodorus Siculus 4.7.1, Scholiast ~ above Pindar, Aronobius 3.37)<2.2> OURANOS (Mimnermos Frag, Pausanias 9.29.1, Cicero De Natura Deorum 3.21)<2.3> ZEUS & PLOUSIA (Tzetzes on Hesiod 35)<3.1> APOLLON (Eumelus Frag 35, Tzetzes top top Hesiod 35)<4.1> PIEROS & ANTIOPE (Cicero De Natura Deorum 3.21, Tzetzes ~ above Hesiod 35)


<1.1> KLEIO, EUTERPE, THALEIA, MELPOMENE, TERPSIKHORE, ERATO, POLYHYMNIA, OURANIA, KALLIOPE (Hesiod Theogony 75, Apollodorus 1.13, Diodorus Siculus 4.7.1, Orphic chant 76)<1.2> TERPSIKHORE, ERATO, KALLIOPE, OURANIA (Plato Phaedrus 259)<1.3> POLYMATHEIA (Plutarch Symposium 9.14)<2.1> MELETE, AOEDE, MNEME (Pausanias 9.39.3)<2.2> MELETE, AODE, ARKHE, THELXINOE (Cicero De Natura Deorum 3.21, Tzetzes on Hes. 23)<3.1> NETE, MESE, HYPATE (Plutarch Symposium 9.14)<3.2> KEPHISO, APOLLONIS, BORYSTHENIS (Eumelus Frag 35, Tzetzes)<4.1> NEILO, TRITONE, ASOPO, HEPTAPORA, AKHELOIS, TIPOPLO, RHODIA (Epicharmis, Tzetzes on Hes. 23)


Muse through box, Paestan red-figure lekanis C4th B.C., Musée du Louvre

MUSAE (Mousai). The Muses, follow to the faster writers, to be the motivating goddesses of song, and, according to later noticus, divinities presiding over the various kinds of poetry, and over the arts and sciences. Lock were initially regarded together the nymphs of inspiring wells, near which they were worshipped, and bore different names in various places, till the Thraco-Boeotian worship of the nine Muses spread out from Boeotia over various other parts the Greece, and ultimately became generally established. (Respecting the Muses conceived together nymphs view Schol. ad Theocrit. vii. 92; Hesych. s. V. Numphê; Steph. Byz. s. V. Torrêbos ; Serv. ad Virg. Eclog. vii. 21.)

The family tree of the Muses is not the very same in every writers. The most common notion was, that they to be the daughters of Zeus and also Mnemosyne, and also born in Pieria, at the foot of mountain Olympus (Hes. Theog. 52, &c., 915; Hom. Il. ii. 491, Od. i. 10; Apollod. I. 3. § 1); yet some call them the daughters the Uranus and also Gaea (Schol. ad Pind. Nem. iii. 16; Paus. Ix. 29. § 2; Diod. Iv. 7; Arnob. adv. Gent. iii. 37), and also others daughters that Pierus and a Pimpleian nymph, who Cicero (De Nat. Deor. iii. 21) call Antiope (Tzetz. ad Hes. Op. Et D. p. 6; Paus. l. C.), or that Apollo, or of Zeus and Plusia, or that Zeus and also Moneta, probably a mere translation of Mnemosyne or Mneme, whence lock are dubbed Mnemonides (Ov. Met. v. 268), or the Zeus and also Minerva (Isid. Orig. iii. 14), or lastly of Aether and Gaea. (Hygin. Fab. Praef.) Eupheme is referred to as the nurse that the Muses, and at the foot of mount Helicon her statue stood alongside that that Linus. (Paus. Ix. 29. § 3.)

With regard to the number of the Muses, us are notified that initially three were worshipped on mount Helicon in Boeotia, namely, Melete (meditation), Mneme (memory), and also Aoede (song); and their worship and also names are stated to have been an initial introduced by Ephialtes and also Otus. (Paus. Ix. 29. § 1, &c.) three were also recognised at Sicyon, where one of them boring the name of Polymatheia (Plut. Sympos. ix. 14), and at Delphi, whereby their surname were the same with those that the lowest, middle, and highest chord of the lyre, viz. Nete, Mese, and also Hypate (Plut. l. C.), or Cephisso, Apollonis, and also Borysthenis, i beg your pardon names characterise them as the daughters the Apollo. (Tzetz. l. C. ; Arnob. Iii. 37; Serv. ad Virg. Eclog. vii. 21; Diod. Iv. 7.) together daughters that Zeus and also Plusia us find point out of 4 Muses, viz. Thelxinoe (the love delighting), Aoede (song), Arche (beginning), and Melete. (Cic., Arnob., Tzetz. ll. Cc. ; Serv. ad Aen. i. 12.) some accounts, again, in which castle are called daughters of Pierus, cite seven Muses, viz. Neilo, Tritone, Asopo, Heptapora, Achelois, Tipoplo, and Rhodia (Tzetz. Arnob. ll. Cc.), and others, lastly, mention eight, which is likewise said to have been the number recognised in ~ Athens. (Arnob. l. C.; Serv. ad Aen. i. 12; Plat. De Re Publ. p. 116.) at length, however, the number nine appears to have end up being established in all Greece. Homer sometimes mentions Musa only in the singular, and sometimes Musae in the plural, and once just (Od. xxiv. 60) he speaks of nine Muses, though without mentioning any kind of of their names. Hesiod (Theog. 77. &c.) is the very first that claims the name of all the nine, and also these ripe names henceforth came to be established. They room Cleio, Euterpe, Thaleia, Melpomene, Terpsichore, Erato, Polymnia, Urania, and Calliope. Plutarch (l. C.) says that in some locations all nine to be designated by the common name Mneiae, i. E. Remembrances.

If we currently inquire right into the notions entertained around the nature and also character the the Muses, we find that, in the Homeric poems, they are the goddesses that song and also poetry, and also live in Olympus. (Il. ii. 484.) over there they song the festive songs at the repasts that the immortals (Il. i. 604, Hymn. In Apoll. Pyth. 11), and at the funeral that Patroclus they song lamentations. (Od. xxiv. 60; comp. Pind. Isthm. viii. 126.) The power which we uncover most frequently assigned to them, is that of bringing before the psychic of the mortal poet the occasions which he needs to relate; and that that conferring upon him the gift the song, and also of providing gracefulness come what the utters. (Il. ii. 484, 491, 761, Od. i. 1, viii. 63, &c., 481, 488; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 259.) There seems to be no factor for doubting that the more quickly poets in your invocation of the Muse or Muses were perfectly sincere, and that lock actually thought in your being influenced by the goddesses; but in later times among the Greeks and also the Romans, as well as in our very own days, the invocation the the Muses is a mere formal imitation the the beforehand poets. Thamyris, that presumed come excel the Muses, was deprived by lock of the gift they had bestowed top top him, and punished with blindness. (Hom. Il. ii. 594, &c.; Apollod. I. 3. § 3.) The Seirens, who similarly ventured top top a challenge with them, to be deprived of the feather of their wings, and the Muses themselves put them on together an ornament (Eustath. ad Hom. P. 85); and the nine daughters that Pierus, that presumed to rival the Muses, to be metamorphosed into birds. (Anton. Lib. 9; Ov. Met. v. 300, &c.) together poets and also bards obtained their power from them, castle are typically called either your disciples or sons. (Hom. Od. viii. 481, Hymn. In Lun. 20 ; Hes. Theog. 22; Pind. Nem. iii.; Serv. ad Virg. Georg. ii. 476.) for this reason Linus is called a boy of Amphimarus and also Urania (Paus. Ix. 29. § 3), or of Apollo and also Calliope, or Terpsichore (Apollod. I. 3. § 2); Hyacinthus a kid of Pierus and Cleio (Apollod. I. 3. § 3); Orpheus a kid of Calliope or Cleio, and Thamyris a boy of Erato. These and also a couple of others room the cases in i beg your pardon the Muses are described as mothers; however the more general idea was, that, like other nymphs, they were virgin divinities. Gift goddesses that song, they space naturally linked with Apollo, the god the the lyre, who favor them instructs the bards, and also is mentioned together with them also by Homer. (Il. i. 603, Od. viii. 488.) In later on times Apollo is placed in an extremely close connection with the Muses, for he is described as the leader the the choir of the Muses through the surname Mousagetês. (Diod. I. 18.) A further feature in the personality of the Muses is their prophetic power, which belongs to them, partly since they were regarded as inspiring nymphs, and partly due to the fact that of their connection with the prophetic god of Delphi. Hence, they instructed, for example, Aristaeus in the arts of prophecy. (Apollon. Rhod. Ii. 512.) that dancing, too, was among the occupations of the Muses, might be inferred indigenous the close connection existing amongst the Greeks between music, poetry, and also dancing. Together the inspiring nymphs loved to dwell on mountain Helicon, they to be naturally connected with Dionysus and also dramatic poetry, and also hence castle are described as the companions, playmates, or nurses of Dionysus.

The praise of the Muses points initially to Thrace and Pieria around mount Olympus, native whence it was introduced right into Boeotia, in such a manner that the names of mountains, grottoes, and also wells, connected with your worship, were similarly transferred native the phibìc to the south. Close to mount Helicon, Ephialtes and Otus are stated to have readily available the first sacrifices come them; and in the same ar there was a sanctuary v their statues, the sacred wells Aganippe and also Hippocrene, and on mountain Leibethrion, i beg your pardon is linked with Helicon, there to be a spiritual grotto the the Muses. (Paus. Ix. 29. § 1, &c., 30. § 1, 31. § 3; Strab. Pp. 410, 471; Serv. ad Virg. Eclog. x. 11.) Pierus, a Macedonian, is claimed to have been the very first who presented the worship of the nine Muses, from Thrace come Thespiae, at the foot of mountain Helicon. (Paus. Ix. 29. § 2.) over there they had a temple and statues, and also the Thespians commemorated a solemn festival of the Muses on mountain Helicon, referred to as Mouseia (Paus. Ix. 27. § 4, 31. § 3; Pind. Fragm. p. 656, ed. Boeckh; Diod. Xvii. 16.) mountain Parnassus was similarly sacred come them, with the Castalian spring, close to which they had actually a temple. (Plut. De Pyth. Orac. 17.) from Boeotia, which thus came to be the emphasis of the praise of the ripe Muses, it afterwards spread right into the nearby and more distant components of Greece. Thus we uncover at Athens a holy place of the Muses in the Academy (Paus. I. 30. § 2); at Sparta sacrifices were available to them prior to fighting a fight (iii. 17. § 5); at Troezene, whereby their worship had actually been presented by Ardalus, sacrifices were available to lock conjointly through Hypnos, the god the sleep (Paus. Iii. 31. §4 , &c.); at Corinth, Peirene, the spring of Pegasus, was spiritual to castle (Pers. Sat. Prol. 4; Stat. Silv. ii. 7. 1); at Rome they had an altar in usual with Hercules, that was also regarded together Musagetes, and also they own a holy place at Ambracia adorned with their statues. (Plut. Quaest. Rom. 59; Plin. H. N. xxxv. 36.) The sacrifices readily available to them had libations the water or milk, and of honey. (Schol. ad Soph. Oed. Col. 100; Serv. ad Virg. Eclog. vii. 21.) The assorted surnames whereby they are designated by the poets are for the most part derived indigenous the places which were spiritual to them or in which they to be worshipped, if some space descriptive that the sweet of your songs.

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In the most ancient works of art we discover only 3 Muses, and their characteristics are music instruments, such as the flute, the lyre, or the barbiton. Later on artists provided to every of the nine sisters various attributes and different attitudes, that which us here include a quick account. 1. Calliope, the Muse of epic poetry, shows up with a tablet and stylus, and sometimes v a role of paper; 2. Cleio, the Muse the history, shows up in a sit attitude, v an open roll of paper, or an open up chest the books; 3. Euterpe, the Muse that lyric poetry, v a flute; 4. Melpomene, the Muse that tragedy, through a catastrophic mask, the society of Heracles, or a sword, her head is surrounded v vine leaves, and also she wears the cothurnus; 5. Terpsichore, the Muse of choral dance and song, appears with the lyre and the plectrum; 6. Erato, the Muse that erotic poetry and mimic imitation, sometimes, also, has actually the lyre; 7. Polymnia, or Polyhymnia, the Muse the the sublime hymn, usually appears without any type of attribute, in a pensive or meditating attitude; 8. Urania, the Muse of astronomy, through a employee pointing to a globe; 9. Thaleia, the Muse the comedy and of merry or idyllic poetry, shows up with the comic mask, a shepherd"s staff, or a wreath of ivy. In some representations the Muses space seen v feathers on their heads, alluding to their challenge with the Seirens.