">Mexican PoppyMexican PoppyArgemone ochroleuca SweetSynonyms - Argemone mexicana. Argemone ochroleuca is damaged into two subspecies Argemone ochroleuca ssp. Ochroleuca and also Argemone ochroleuca ssp. Mexicana by part authors.Family: Papaveraceae.

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Names:Argemone is indigenous the Greek word because that eye cataracts because the juice was supposed to cure cataracts, but eating it causes glaubarisalcity.orga.Ochroleuca is Greek for yellow and also white in reference to the flower colour.Mexican Poppy - because it is a poppy native Mexico.

Other Names:

Chicolate (Mexico)Devils FigGolden Thistle the PeruMexican Pricklepoppy (USA)Mexican Thistle (Jamaica)Prickly PoppyWhite ThistleYellow Poppy

Summary:

A blue green, erect, spiny, yearly thistle v yellow sap and large yellow-orange to nearly white poppy flower from November come February. The leaves space deeply lobed, spiny and often have white blotches.

Description:

Cotyledons: Two. Strap-like.

First leaves:

First leaf often 3 lobed.

Leaves:

Crowded rosette of shortly stalked leaves. Alternate.Stipules - Petiole - nobody on stem leaves. Quick on the rosette leaves. Tongue - Prickly, 60-250 x 15-100 mm. Variable shape. Deeply lobed right into 7-11 lobes. Lobes have actually sharp yellow spines. Wavy indentations on lobes and between lobes. Blue-green, blotched with white along veins top top the upper surface. Spanned with a powdery bloom. Edges wavy. Conspicuous veins. Prickles scattered ~ above the underside. Stem leaves - Shallower lobes than basal leaves. Stem clasping. Change shape.

Stems:

Blue-green. As much as 900 mm tall. Leafy. Frequently branched close to base. Copious yellow come orange sap. Pithy. Smooth or slightly furry in between scattered stiff yellow prickles.

Flower head:

Single in ~ the end of stems v 2 or 3 bracts underneath. Stem leaves close underneath.

Flowers:

30-60 mm diameter. No stalk or very short stalk.Bracts - Ovary - spiny surface. Purple to dark red stigma v 3-6 lobes pressed versus each other. Short style.Sepals - 3. 50-100 mm long. Hood-like. Tip has long conical, 7- 10 mm allude or spine. Cost-free with horn-like appendage. Bristly. Loss off prior to the flower opens. Sparsely prickled v a big spine just listed below the top. Sepals autumn off together the flower opens.Petals - 4-6. Egg shaped, delicate. 20-30 mm long, 14-40 mm wide. Yellow- orange to practically white. Stamens - Many. Orange.Anthers -

Fruit:

Capsule, 1 celled. Egg shame to oblong, spiny, thin walled. 15-50 mm long x 20 mm diameter. Ribbed, usually v 5 lengthwise pale grooves be separated by blue green. 3-6 sections. Persistent layout on top. Open from the height downwards leaving a structure choose the ribs of one umbrella formed from whereby the style ribs room attached to the stigma.

Seeds:

Dark brown to black. Rounded, globular. Lengthwise rows of warts, 1-2 mm diameter. Oily. Covered with a network the veins.

Roots:

Taproot v a couple of branches and many well laterals.

Key Characters:

Yellow-orang to white poppy flowers through 4-6 petals.Spiny.

Biology:

Life cycle: Annual. Flowers feather to summer. Seed germinate at any kind of time the the year. Rosettes of pipeline are developed in winter and the flower stem emerges in spring. Flowering and seed set normally start in November and continues with the summer. Dormant seed is produced and also is intended to make it through in the soil for numerous years.

Physiology:

Reproduction:By seeds only.

Flowering times:

November come February.

Seed Biology and also Germination:

Seed has an after ~ ripening period (dormancy) of a few weeks to several months.

Vegetative Propagules:

None.

Hybrids:

Allelopathy:It produces chemicals that affect the growth of various other plants such as wheat, sorghum and also finger millet. At high concentration it inhibits tree whilst at lower levels it rises growth. In India a mexican poppy mulch is spread to enhance rice and Sesbania growth.

Population Dynamics and also Dispersal:

Large number of seeds (up to 40,000 per plant) are produced, many of which germinate close to the parent. Movement in water, mud attached to animals and machinery or in produce and also grain are the key methods of spread.Seedlings don"t establish readily in the existence of perennial pastures.

Origin and also History:

Central America and Mexico.Probably imported together a contaminant that wheat seed and an initial reported close to Sydney in 1845.

Distribution:

ACT, NSW, NT, QLD, SA, VIC, WA.Occurs together a significant weed in many countries.
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Courtesy Australia"s digital Herbarium.

Habitats:

Climate:Sub-tropical, below humid and also semi arid scrub lands.At altitudes from sea level come 2900 metres.

Soil:

Sand banks, silty areas in flood plains and the beds of intermittent creeks. Tolerates a wide selection of soils yet is often much more barisalcity.orgmon on sandy soils. Well adapted to growing in soils v a low nutrient status. Barisalcity.orgmon on hefty self mulching soils.The ochroleuca subspecies restrict in nitrogen bad soils and also the mexicana subspecies in soils with low phosphorous levels.

Plant Associations:

Significance:Listed as among the world"s worst weeds.

Beneficial:

Honey and also pollen plant.It is among the few plants that can reduce soil pH.

Detrimental:

Contaminates wool with its prickly fruit. Weed of overwhelming plains, disturbed areas, roadsides, mine sites, hare warrens, grew areas, fallows, vegetables, cereal and also sugar cane.Reduces growth and egg manufacturing in poultry when fed contaminated feed.

Toxicity:

Toxic because of nitrate levels and also alkaloids yet it is commonly not eaten by stock. Seeds contaminating grain might be toxicity to poultry and man. The seed is the many toxic part of the plant.

Symptoms:

Violent colic in horses.Deaths room rare.In poultry - darkening of the barisalcity.orgb, oedema the wattles and also sub-mandibular room occur 9-12 work after ingestion. Development rates space depressed at low levels (0.5%) of contamination.In guy - dropsy and also glaubarisalcity.orga has been attributed to the usage of food preparation oil do from contaminated oilseeds.

Treatment:

Avoid feeding create contaminated through seed to animals. Don"t disclose hungry, unaccustomed animals to infestations.

Legislation:

Noxious weed of WA.

Management and Control:

Prevent seeds set. Mowing and slashing frequently fail due to the fact that of regrowth. Cultivation of young tree is effective. Hormone herbicides provide great control of young plants. Glyphosate provides great control in non-selective situations. A number of selective herbicides deserve to be supplied in crops. In pasture, the facility of perennial pasture types usually outcomes in the slow disappearance of the weed.

Thresholds:

Eradication strategies:Prevent seed set. Develop barisalcity.orgpetitive perennial pastures.

Herbicide resistance:

None reported.

Biological Control:

Related plants:American Poppy (Argemone subfusiformis). American poppy has cream to pale yellow flower (or deep yellow in central and north NSW), the capsule is spindle shaped and also the seed is much longer (about 2 mm).

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Plants of similar appearance:

Thistles are comparable before flowering but can be identified by your flower form later in the season.

References: