As my title suggests, the king’s wardrobe to be actually broken into 4 parts. Each part had its own officer, different function, and different location. And also surprisingly, your names aren’t always intuitive.
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The WARDROBE, was the most important and also expensive of the four. It was responsible for the king and his household’s expenses, such as food and also drink, coal, wood, candles, etc. As well as oats and litter because that the horses and also daily wages. Incidental expenses for the household such as medicine, ink-horns and also parchments were included, and also gifts, robes, searching expenses, and also the cost of entertaining foreign ambassadors. Because that the last number of years of King Edward III’s reign and also the very first half of Richard II’s reign, Wardrobe costs hovered approximately £18,000. However after Queen Anne’s fatality in 1395, as soon as Richard was accused of excessive extravagance and also especially once he to work his 300 Cheshire archers as bodyguards, his expenditure swelled to end £37,000. Ironically, even though this to be a bone the contention, King Henry IV ongoing this vast spending spree, allegedly due to the fact that he preferred to preserve a large and extravagant residential establishment. Ultimately he had actually to bow come the complaints the Parliament, and managed to carry his yearly expenses under to about £19,000.
The good WARDROBE was responsible for cloth, furs, and linen. These were because that robes (sometimes part of an annuity, as well as robes for tournaments, marriages, funerals, anniversaries, chapel vestments, trappings for royal horses), wall surface hangings, coverings—even garters. Simply to give an instance of how costly particular events can prove, “for Princess Joan’s funeral (mother the the king) in 1385, the keeper had actually to carry out special mourning robes for 4 earls, ten bannerets, fifty-four knights, forty-eight clerks, 161 esquires and sergeants, 157 valets, eighteen minstrels, a more 320 lesser servants that the king” (see “The imperial Household and the King’s Affinity” through Charles Given-Wilson). No sewing machines; they must have needed a whole military of seamstresses.
The good Wardrobe was additionally divided into four sub-departments, top by a tailor, armorer, pavilioner, and also embroiderer. It to be housed beside Baynard’s Castle in between St. Paul’s and the Thames; this residence was purchased by Edward III in 1360 and remained in use till the good fire of 1666. Together in the Wardrobe expenses, there was a substantial escalation of prices from the early part of Richard’s regime (averaging about £3,000-£3,500 a year) to £8,000 at the end of his reign. This is attributed come his great love that finery.
The PRIVY WARDROBE to be essentially dedicated to arms and also armor and also was situated in the Tower the London. Return the share of weaponry was superior (among the 1396 inventory it had 796 basinets, 2328 bows, 1392 coats the mail, 11,300 quarrels, 14,280 arrows), this was the the very least expensive that the four family members departments. This is because the sheriffs were supposed to administer most that the weaponry, deducting the expenses from their yearly payments to the exchequer. When members the the king’s family members were sent out on military duties, lock were typically equipped from the Privy Wardrobe.
The CHAMBER, together you would certainly expect, to be the king’s an individual wealth. This included his jewels and plate, which were sometimes used together pledges because that loans. Just how was the chamber money accrued? earnings from the king’s an individual estates, fines, wardships, ransoms (remember the French King John?), licenses, traitors’ chattels, dowries (800,000 francs in 1396 for little Princess Isabella) amongst other sources. Money to be passed earlier and forth in between the Chamber and the exchequer; not just was the chamber given yearly installments, however there to be times the king would certainly deposit large sums in the exchequer. Follow to Given-Wilson, “between 1368 and 1377, Edward in fact transferred a complete of much more than £160,000 the his an individual wealth, from the chamber, the Tower hoard, and also the ransom installments which ongoing to accrue, into the exchequer, the vast majority of which was invested on military needs”. Since the chamber money was the king’s business and also nobody else’s, there are no official accounts because that historians. Nonetheless, Edward have to have gathered quite a hoard, for in 1365-66 he set up the Jewel Tower (pictured) in the palace of Westminster i beg your pardon was surrounding by a moat.
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As you might suspect, this short article concerns the reigns that Edward III, Richard II and Henry IV as described by kris Given-Wilson. If you room interested in the early advance of the Wardrobe, ns heartily introduce T.F. Tout who has written four volumes top top the topic entitled “Chapters in the Administrative history of Mediaeval England” which have recently to be reprinted. Both that these historians have contributed greatly come our understanding of the period.