Group IIA: The Alkaline-Earth metals Group IIIA: The barisalcity.orgistry that Aluminum Group IVA: Tin and Lead

Group IIA: TheAlkaline-Earth steels

The elements in team IIA (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra) are allmetals, and all yet Be and also Mg are active metals. This elementsare often dubbed the alkaline-earth metals. The term alkalinereflects the fact that countless compounds the these steels are basicor alkaline. The term earth was historically used todescribe the truth that numerous of this compounds room insoluble inwater. Most of the barisalcity.orgistry the the alkaline-earth metals (GroupIIA) deserve to be predicted indigenous the behavior of the alkali metals (Group IA). Three points need to bekept in mind, however.

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The alkaline-earth metals tend to lose two electron to kind M 2+ ion (Be2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, and also so on). These steels are less reactive 보다 the surrounding alkali metal. Magnesium is less energetic than sodium; calcium is less active than potassium; and so on. These metals become an ext active as we go under the column. Magnesium is more active 보다 beryllium; calcium is an ext active 보다 magnesium; and also so on.

The alkaline-earth metals react through nonmetals to provide theproducts intended from the electron construction of theelements.

Mg(s) + Cl2(g)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/barisalcity.orgistry/"> MgCl2(s)

3 Mg(s) + N2(g)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/barisalcity.orgistry/"> Mg3N2(s)

Ca(s) + H2(g)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/barisalcity.orgistry/"> CaH2(s)

Because they are not as active as the alkali metals, most ofthese elements kind oxides.

2 Mg(s) + O2(g)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/barisalcity.orgistry/"> 2 MgO(s)

Calcium, strontium, and barium deserve to also type peroxides.

Ba(s) + O2(g)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/barisalcity.orgistry/"> BaO2(s)

The more active members of team IIA (Ca, Sr, and Ba) reactwith water in ~ room temperature. The commodities of these reactionsare what we might expect. Calcium, because that example, loses twoelectrons to kind Ca2+ ions once it reacts v water.

Ca " width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/barisalcity.orgistry/"> Ca2+ + 2 e-

These electrons room picked up by the water molecule to type H2gas and OH- ions.

2 H2O + 2 e-" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/barisalcity.orgistry/"> H2 + 2 OH-

Combining the 2 halves the the reaction so that electrons areconserved provides the complying with result.

Ca(s) + 2 H2O(l)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/barisalcity.orgistry/"> Ca2+(aq) + 2 OH-(aq)+ H2(g)

Although Mg does no react v water atroom temperature, it will react with steam. The assets of thisreaction can"t be aqueous Mg2+ and also OH- ionsbecause there is no liquid water approximately to stabilize these ions.The products of this reaction space H2 gas and also magnesiumoxide, MgO.

Mg(s) + H2O(g)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/barisalcity.orgistry/"> MgO(s) + H2(g)

Practice difficulty 2:

Magnesium reacts v hydrogen to kind compound A, i beg your pardon is a white solid in ~ room temperature. It likewise reacts v hydrochloric acid to form gas B and an aqueous equipment of link C. Determine the assets of these reactions and write balanced equations because that each reaction.

Click below to check your answer to Practice trouble 2

Group IIIA: The barisalcity.orgistry ofAluminum

The facets in team IIIA (B, Al, Ga, In, and Tl) have the right to bedivided right into three classes.

Boron is the only element in this team that is no a metal. That behaves favor a semimetal or even a nonmetal. Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the earth"s crust. That is simply slightly much less reactive 보다 the active metals. The various other three elements in this team are energetic metals, yet they room so scarce they are of restricted interest. Gallium, indium, and thallium combined total less than 10-10% that the earth"s crust.

Discussions the the team IIIA metals as such revolve aroundthe barisalcity.orgistry that aluminum, which deserve to be construed by assumingthat the steel reacts to type compounds in i m sorry it has anoxidation number of +3.

2 Al(s) + 3 Br2(l)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/barisalcity.orgistry/"> Al2Br6(s)

4 Al(s) + 3 O2(g)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/barisalcity.orgistry/"> 2 Al2O3(s)

16 Al(s) + 3 S8(s)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/barisalcity.orgistry/"> 8 Al2S3(s)

Aluminum reacts with concentrated acids to offer Al3+ions and H2 gas.

2 Al(s) + 6 H+(aq)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/barisalcity.orgistry/"> 2 Al3+(aq) + 3 H2(g)

It also reacts with focused bases to offer H2gas and the aluminate ion, Al(OH)4-, inwhich aluminum is in the +3 oxidation state.

2 Al(s) + 2 OH-(aq)+ 6 H2O(l) " width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/barisalcity.orgistry/"> 2 Al(OH)4-(aq) + 3 H2(g)

Group IVA: Tin and also Lead

The aspects in group IVA deserve to be divided into three classes:

carbon, i m sorry is a nonmetal; silicon and germanium, which space semimetals; and also tin and also lead, which room metals. Tin and also lead are among the oldest metals known.

Tin and lead room much less reactive than any of the groups IA,IIA, or IIIA metals. According to the dispute that elementsbecome much more metallic and also therefore an ext active together we go under a column of the periodic table, lead need to be morereactive 보다 tin.

Lead reacts through air to kind a slim coating the PbO and/or PbCO3,which protects the steel from further reaction.

2 Pb(s) + O2(g)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/barisalcity.orgistry/"> 2 PbO(s)

PbO(s) + CO2(g)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/barisalcity.orgistry/"> PbCO3(s)

When carefully divided, command is pyrophoric that bursts right into flame in the presence of oxygen.

Tin does no react with either wait or water at roomtemperature. Once heated until white hot, tin reacts with air toform SnO2.

Sn(s) + O2(g)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/barisalcity.orgistry/"> SnO2(s)

At high temperature it additionally reacts with heavy steam to give SnO2.

Sn(s) + 2 H2O(g) " width="17"height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/barisalcity.orgistry/">SnO2(s) + 2 H2(g)

Tin and also lead room both less active than aluminum. No metalreacts with either dilute hydrochloric mountain or dilute sulfuricacid at room temperature. Tin, when heated, reacts v eitherconcentrated hydrochloric acid or focused sulfuric acid.

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Sn(s) + 2 H+(aq)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/barisalcity.orgistry/"> Sn2+(aq) + H2(g)

Lead reacts slowly with hydrochloric mountain at room temperatureand with focused sulfuric mountain at temperatures above 200C.

Pb(s) + 2 H+(aq)" width="17"height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/barisalcity.orgistry/">Pb2+(aq) + H2(g)

Tin and lead are main group metals that type compounds in morethan one oxidation state. Together a rule, the reduced oxidation statebecomes more stable as we go under a pillar of the periodic table.Lead, for example, is an ext likely to be uncovered in the +2 oxidationstate 보다 tin. Thus, while believe reacts through oxygen at hightemperatures to type SnO2, lead develops PbO. (PbO2cannot be formed by the direct reaction between lead and oxygen.)