External Reproductive Organs

Penis and also Prepuce 

The stallion’s penis is composed of 3 parts: (1) the root or bulb, (2) the human body or shaft, (the main part), and also (3) the glans, the enlarged complimentary end of the penis. As soon as not erect, the penis is 50 cm long and also 2.5 come 6 cm in diameter through the distal end 15 come 20 cm totally free in the prepuce. Once erect, the dick doubles in length and thickness and also the glans boosts by 3 come 4 times. The prepuce or sheath is a dual invagination of the skin the covers the distal part of the cock when not erect. Examination of the penis and prepuce is many conveniently excellent at the time of washing. Permit the stallion to technique the mare in order to be stimulated to permit down, at which time the cock extends from the sheath. Practice caution due to the fact that some stallions may be wake up to be examined and cow kick or absent backwards at the examiner. Be careful to defend everyone involved. Research the penis and prepuce both manually and also visually. Grasp the tower of the cock just behind the glans. Research the urethral procedure for lesions and the associated structures because that debris or other international material. The examination continues up the obelisk where any injuries, scars or various other lesions are noted. With the cock exposed, research the internal and external section of the prepuce. Usually a little amount the greasy smegma is found at the basic of the penis. Any kind of trauma or injury to the prick or prepuce have the right to be very detrimental come the stallion’s capacity to covering a mare and could an outcome in lengthy term emotional problems. This is an especially true if the stallion is kicked by the mare while attempting to breed her. Trauma can likewise occur by improper dealing with of fabricated vaginas.

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The scrotum is an outpouching the skin in the inguinal area that encloses the testes. It has a longitudinal midline where the 2 sacs are fused. The scrotum may be check at the time of washing or ~ ejaculation, which may be much safer for everyone involved. The stallion’s scrotum is no as pendulous as a bull’s and is held closer come the abdomen. The scrotum’s skin is soft and pliable through a greasy texture because of sebaceous glands. The scrotum is necessary in thermoregulation that the testicles.

Testicles and Epididymides

The testes are ovoid structures, measure up 8 come 12 cm long by 6 to 7 centimeter high through 5 cm wide. They consist that seminiferous tubules in i m sorry spermatogenesis occurs and also interstitial organization of i beg your pardon the Leydig cells create testosterone. The testicles have to be openly movable within the scrotal sac. The epididymides are split into 3 parts: (1) head; (2) body and also (3) tail. The head of the epididymis is carefully attached come the testicle’s anterior dorsal aspect. The body of the epididymis proceeds along the testicle’s back side till it terminates in ~ the rather large tail the the epididymis the is loosely attached come the testicle’s tail. The testes and epididymides room palpated with the scrotal wall to identify their presence, size, symmetry and consistency. The normal stallion has actually two testes. Palpation need to reveal that they have the same consistency v no abnormalities of form or texture. The right testis is normally slightly smaller sized than the left. Determine testicular dimension by measure up scrotal width of both testicles. Measure scrotal width using calipers in ~ the allude of best width v a nonerect penis. Scrotal broad is positively correlated with daily sperm production and output. Common scrotal widths range from 9 come 13 cm. Stallions older than 7 year of age tend come have higher scrotal widths 보다 younger stallions. Details medications, specifically androgens, adversely impact testicular size. Cryptorchidism is common in stallions and also its genetic control is not totally understood. The left testicle is the one most generally retained. Congenital cryptorchid stallions must not be thought about for breeding.

Internal Reproductive Organs

The ductus deferens is the continuation of the epididymis and also runs native the tail of the epididymis through the inguinal canal to the area the the neck that the bladder. The duct broadens near the bladder to kind the ampulla i beg your pardon acts together a sperm storage organ.

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Accessory Sex Glands

The vesicular glands, prostate gland and bulbourethral glands are jointly called the accessory sex glands. Lock all carry out a portion of the seminal fluid, however are not crucial for fertility. These glands are generally rectally palpated. The vesicular glands are usually the most difficult to palpate due to the fact that before teasing lock are basically collapsed. However, after vigorous teasing, the vesicles enlarge due to the build-up of the gels portion and are simpler to palpate. This is why it may be more desirable come palpate after ~ teasing, but on the other hand, most stallions are more tractable adhering to ejaculation. So, time the rectal examination is mainly at the examiner’s discretion.