Sodium is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal. Sodium is one alkali metal, gift in team 1 of the periodic table, because it has a single electron in its outer shell that it conveniently donates, creating a positively charged atom—the Na+ cation.
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Metallic sodium is used greatly for the production of salt borohydride, salt azide, indigo, and also triphenylphosphine. Employed only in rather dedicated applications, only around 100,000 tonnes of metallic sodium are created annually. Salt is now created commercially through the electrolysis of molten sodium chloride.
Protons and also Neutrons in Sodium
The full number of neutrons in the cell nucleus of an atom is referred to as the neutron number of the atom and also is given the symbol N. Neutron number plus atomic number equals atom mass number: N+Z=A. The difference between the spirit number and the atom number is known as the neutron excess: D = N – Z = A – 2Z.
For steady elements, over there is normally a range of stable isotopes. Isotopes room nuclides that have the very same atomic number and also are as such the exact same element, yet differ in the variety of neutrons. Mass number of usual isotopes that Sodium are 23.
Main isotopes of Sodium
Its only stable isotope is 23Na. 2 radioactive, cosmogenic isotopes space the byproduct that cosmic beam spallation: 22Na has a half-life of 2.6 years and also 24Na, a half-life the 15 hours; all various other isotopes have actually a half-life of less than one minute.
Sodium-23 is written of 11 protons, 12 neutrons, and 11 electrons. Acute spirit radiation exposure (e.g., from a nuclear criticality accident) converts several of the stable 23Na in human blood plasma come 24Na. By measure up the concentration of this isotope, the neutron radiation dosage to the victim deserve to be computed.
Sodium-22 is composed of 11 protons, 11 neutrons, and also 11 electrons. Odium-22 is a radioactive isotope that sodium, undergoing positron emission to 22Ne v a half-life that 2.605 years. The is also commonly provided as a positron resource in positron annihilation spectroscopy.
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Sodium-24 is composed of 11 protons, 12 neutrons, and 11 electrons. Sodium-24 is among the most necessary isotopes. It is radioactive and created from typical sodium-23 by neutron bombardment. Because of this its activity accounts for most of the reactor coolants task when reactor is at full power.