Normally, Covalent Bonds kind between 2 non-metal atoms. Non-metals are found to the right the the periodic Table and will have outer shells that room half-filled or an ext than half-filled.

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They will have tendency to gain electrons by sharing electrons to become much more stable.

The number of unpaired electrons will identify the number the bonds one atom can form.



Hydrogen appears in a wide range of molecules but can never type more than one single covalent bond.


Similarly, Chlorine appears in a wide selection of molecules yet can never type more than one solitary covalent bond.

Oxygen has 6 electrons (2 pairs and also 2 singles) and also can kind two single covalent binding or one twin covalent link (maximum of 2 bonds).


Nitrogen has 5 electrons (1 pair and 3 singles) and also can form three solitary covalent bond or one triple covalent shortcut (maximum the 3 bonds).


Carbon v 4 single electrons is the most versatile and also can kind single, dual and triple covalent bond (maximum that 4 bonds).

Bonding Pictures

There are numerous ways the representing the formation of Covalent Bonds. One of the \"best\" mirrors the orbitals overlapping to share electrons.


In exams, however, you are much more likely to be asked to attract \"electron-dot\" diagrams to represent shells overlapping to share electrons.


In particular, you would be meant to draw diagrams to show the electrons in molecules of methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3) and also water (H2O).

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Molecular Shapes

Similarly, you would certainly be expected to recognize the forms of simple molecules prefer methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3) and water (H2O).


In methane (CH4), all 4 orbitals are offered to kind bonds and also the molecule is the same tetrahedral shape as the orbitals have.

In ammonia (NH3) just 3 orbitals are used and the molecule is pyramidal in shape.

in water (H2O) just 2 orbitals space used and the molecule is bent (non-linear) in shape.


The shapes of part molecules are displayed below.

Phosphine is a compound of phosphorus and also hydrogen. The form of a molecule of phosphine is most likely to be

tetrahedral pyramidal bent linear.

Question 10.

The shapes of some molecules are shown below.

\"Bad egg gas\" is a compound of hydrogen and sulfur. The form of a molecule of \"Bad egg gas\" is likely to be

tetrahedral pyramidal bending linear.

Question 9:The correct answer is pyramidal.

Phosphorus is choose nitrogen and has 5 valence electron in its external shell

This will be 1 pair and 3 singles - 3 bonds forming to 3 hydrogen atoms.

Using only 3 that the 4 orbitals way the form will it is in pyramidal, favor NH3.

Question 10:The correct answer is bent.

Sulfur is like oxygen and also has 6 valence electron in its outer shell

This will be 2 pairs and also 2 singles - 2 bonds creating to 2 hydrogen atoms.

Using just 2 of the 4 orbitals way the shape will be bent, like H2O.

Key points 4

A covalent bond typically forms in between two non-metal atoms.

A covalent bond creates when a pair the electrons are shared and attracted by the nuclei of two atoms.

If two pairs that electrons are shared, climate a dual bond forms.

If three pairs of electrons are mutual then a triple link is formed.

The number of single electron in the outer shell determines how numerous covalent bonds an atom can form.

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In basic molecules, the number of atoms bonded to the main atom will determine the shape of the molecule.