The alteration of oxygen atoms or ions into hydroxyls, which is the structure of water or lattice water, and also the advent of water molecule hydrating inside absorbent surfaces, are established prevailing mechanisms in clay genesis or synthesis processes.

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N.W. Barnett, ... J.S. Lancaster, in Encyclopedia of Analytical scientific research (Second Edition), 2005

Atomic Oxygen


Oxygen atom are an ext powerful oxidants 보다 ozone, and produce chemiluminescence through a wide variety of analytes. Nevertheless, the analytical application of this reagent is really limited. One factor for this is that the five various excited says of molecular oxygen formed in the recombination the oxygen atoms (reaction ) develop a elevator emission across the whole visible an ar that boosts quadratically through oxygen atom concentration:


The reaction between oxygen atoms and also nitric oxide produce a continuum between 400 and 1400 nm native excited nitrogen dioxide. This are significantly lower wavelengths than those that the previously debated reaction between nitric oxide and also ozone. This reaction has actually been used to identify oxygen atom in kinetic experiments. Similar to the oxidation the sulfur monoxide through ozone, oxidation through oxygen atom produces sulfur dioxide in electronically excited states. In this case, the emissions is distributed from 240 come 400 nm v a maximum in ~ ∼270 nm.


Dr.James G. Speight, in eco-friendly Organic Chemistry for Engineers, 2017

3.5 Alcohols and Phenols

An oxygen atom is much much more electronegative 보다 carbon or hydrogen atoms, so both carbon-oxygen and also hydrogen-oxygen bonds space polar. The oxygen atom is slightly negatively charged, and also the carbon and also hydrogen atoms room slightly positively charged. The polar bond of the hydroxyl team are responsible because that the major reaction features of alcohols and phenols. In general, these reactions room initiated by reaction of electron-deficient groups with the negatively charged oxygen atom or by reaction that electron-rich teams with the positively fee atoms—namely, carbon or hydrogen—bonded come oxygen.


Alcohols room the oxygen-hydrogen functional group (OH) within a hydrocarbon molecule. The 2 most important commercial varieties of alcohol room methanol (CH3OH, also called methyl alcohol or hardwood alcohol) and ethanol (C2H5OH), which demands very little introduction because it is discovered in alcoholic beverages, such as beer, wine, whiskey, and also many various other such beverages. Despite methanol is still well-known as wood alcohol, it is no longer obtained by heater wood, but rather by the industrial hydrogenation the carbon monoxide:



Methanol is provided in adhesives, fibers, and also plastics; that can additionally be offered as a fuel. Ethanol, too, deserve to be melted in one internal-combustion engine when linked with petrol (a product recognized as gasohol).


Ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) is an instance of instead of on hydrogen atom the ethane with a hydroxyl function. Ethylene glycol is an example of instead of a hydrogen atom on each carbon atom that ethane with hydroxyl function, and also phenol is an instance of instead of one hydrogen atom in benzene with a hydroxyl function. When the hydroxyl group is directly attached come a benzene ring, the resulting compound is phenol, which deserve to lead come a variety of phenol derivatives (Fig. 2.1). Both alcohols and phenols room widespread in nature, v alcohols being especially ubiquitous.




All alcohols deserve to be classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary alcohols. In a primary alcohol, the carbon external inspection to the hydroxyl team is additionally bonded to only one various other carbon. In a secondary alcohol and also tertiary alcohol, the carbon is external inspection to 2 or three other carbons, respectively. The sulfur analog of an alcohol (SH) is a thiol (often referred to as a mercaptan).



Phenol derivatives the anthropogenic origin, which drain from municipal sewer systems or commercial sewage systems, permeate ecosystems together as surface water. Moreover, the event of phenol derivatives in the environment likewise arises native the production and use of plenty of pesticides, in particular phenoxy-herbicides such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) and additionally from phenolic biocides such as choose pentachlorophenol (PCP).



In addition, phenol derivatives may be created as a result of natural processes as, for example, throughout the formation of phenol and p-cresol together a an outcome of the decomposition of organic matter or synthesis of chlorinated phenol derivatives through fungi and plants (Laine and Jorgensen, 1996; Swarts et al., 1998; Jaromir et al, 2005; Michałowicz and Duda, 2007).


A.J. Appleby, in Encyclopedia of Electrochemical strength Sources, 2009

The oxygen atom and also the dioxygen molecule room examined indigenous the wave-mechanical digital viewpoint. Its molecular orbitals account because that both the paramagnetism of the typical triplet dioxygen molecule, and its lack of direct chemical reactivity compared with that of excited singlet oxygen and also of the trioxygen allotrope ozone. Oxygen is connected in plenty of electrolytes and energetic materials in electrochemical strength sources. The major applications the dioxygen in electrochemical power resources are in oxygen palliation cathodes and also oxygen development anodes. The very first is the evaluation in detail, while the second is thought about elsewhere in this encyclopedia.

At simple temperatures electrochemical oxygen reactivity is restricted even on the best catalysts, contrasted with, e.g., dihydrogen oxidation. The is often declared that biochemical dioxygen reduction seems comparable to fuel cabinet reactions, therefore these fast biochemical processes are reviewed.

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A conversation of dioxygen palliation electrocatalysis follows, consisting of the impact of reaction intermediate adsorption ~ above reaction rate in mountain media, consisting of compensation effects between the Arrhenius price equation preexponential term and also the activation energy. The activity of porous electrodes is critically evaluated for acid and also alkaline media. Finally, dioxygen reduction at high temperatures in molten carbonate and also solid oxide electrolytes is examined.