Dictation is the process of composing down what someone else has actually said. V young children, dictation uses a means for a parent or a teacher to record a child"s thoughts or concepts when the writing demands surpass writing skills. Dictation gives a opportunity for one adult come model numerous writing behaviors including handwriting, corresponding sounds-to-letters come spell words, and also sentence formation.

You are watching: Conventions of expression are dictated by

When come use: prior to reading
during reading
~ reading
How to use: Individually With little groups Whole class setting

Why use dictation?

It allows students to watch as an adult to write using numerous conventions that writing, such as letter formation, punctuation, spacing between words, and also more.Teachers have the right to model listening to a sound and writing the associated letter.It allows us to design that speech deserve to be created down and also read back.

Language Arts

Ask students to draw a picture of miscellaneous of their choice; their family, a house, their pet, or one more concept the the son is familiar with. Then ask the son to to speak a sentence or two about the picture, for instance "Our dog is brown." create the child"s words on the bottom the her picture and read them earlier to her. As you write, model a clear sound to letter match. "We read a book about the moon. I"m going come write words mmmmmmoon. What sound is at the start of moon? What letter provides that sound?" Encourage the child to check out the sentence too.

Have students tell a team story. Sometimes dubbed Language suffer Charts, group stories advantage from a shared class experience choose a ar trip or school assembly. Begin by brainstorming a title. Compose down the children"s ideas. If necessary, notice a sequence "What taken place first? climate what did us do?" and also so on. Document the sentences together the kids dictate them. As you write, model a clean sound come letter match. "We check out a book about the moon. I"m going come write the word mmmmmmoon. What sound is in ~ the beginning of moon? What letter makes that sound?" as soon as the story is finished, check out the story aloud with the children. Review it several times, then ask if everyone would favor to read it by himself. Give everyone a chance to read. Later, copy the story top top chart document and display it in the classroom.


Children discover to describe and also care because that plants and also animals, recording their findings in scientific research journals through pictures, dictation, or kindergarten-style writing.

Social Studies

Teachers have the right to follow up through a read aloud by asking students to summary a review aloud top top a social studies topic. Teachers can write the college student dictations on chart paper. Summaries deserve to be read by the totality class.

Differentiated instruction

For second Language Learners, students of varying reading skill, and also for younger learners

Teachers must vary their expectations because that the size of dictation based upon a child"s language and/or age.Strategies such together this enable children indigenous other cultures to lug their different experiences right into the classroom come share. Share dictations v whatever way will enrich the other students" experience.Dictations v the totality group in the form of a class story might serve to familiarize students v the strategy.

Some the the research done that entails dictation originates from a entirety language perspective. We"ve detailed some of that study here. Ours instructions for using dictation encourage a more explicit method to utilizing the strategy than what was contained in few of the research provided below.

MacArthur, C. A., & Graham, S. (1987). Finding out disabled students" writing under three techniques of text production. The journal of distinct Education, 21(3), 22-42.

Stahl, S. A., Miller, P. D. (1989). Totality Language and Language Experience philosophies for beginning Reading: A Quantitative research study Synthesis. Review of education Research, 59, 87-116.

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Stauffer, Russell G. (1970). The language experience approach to the to teach of reading. Brand-new York: Harper & Row.