Contrasting student and scientific views

Student everyday experiences

Younger primary students may have tiny knowledge around internal bodily organs. They have tendency to think the contents of the body space what they have actually seen gift put right into or coming the end of it, such as food and also blood. Their experiences with day-to-day cuts, scratches and also bruises seem to reinforce a watch that blood is below the surface ar of the skin, filling the spaces within the human body (like a bag the blood).

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Older youngsters are an ext likely to have the ability to list a big number that organs but may not fully understand the duty or interconnected nature of these. Because that example, student at these levels may realise the the heart is a pump yet not realise that the blood return to the heart, or they may think that the brain helps the human body parts however not constantly realise that the body helps the brain.

Research: Fleer & continuous (1996), Gellert (1962), Carey (1985)

Scientific view

To survive and also reproduce, the human body depends on significant internal human body organs to carry out certain an important functions. When two or an ext organs together with their associated structures job-related together they come to be component parts of a body system.

Some that the conveniently recognisable internal organs and their associated functions are:

The brain

The mind is the control centre that the concerned system and also is located within the skull. That functions include muscle control and also coordination, sensory reception and also integration, speech production, storage storage, and also the elaboration of thought and also emotion.

The lungs

The lungs space two sponge-like, cone-shaped structures that fill most of the chest cavity. Their essential role is to administer oxygen native inhaled air come the bloodstream and to exhale carbon dioxide.

The liver

The liver lies ~ above the right side the the abdominal muscle cavity beneath the diaphragm. That is main role is to procedure the contents of the blood to ensure composition remains the same. This procedure involves breaking under fats, developing urea, filtering harmful substances and maintaining a suitable level that glucose in the blood.

The bladder

The bladder is a muscular organ located in the cavity. It stretches to store urine and contracts to relax urine.

The kidneys

The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs situated at the ago of the abdominal muscle cavity, one on every side that the spinal column. Their role is to preserve the body’s chemical balance by excreting garbage products and excess fluid in the form of urine.

The heart

The heart is a hollow, muscular body organ that pumps blood v the blood ship by repeated, rhythmic contractions.

The stomach

The stomach is a muscular, elastic, pear-shaped bag, lied crosswise in the abdominal cavity in ~ the diaphragm. Its key purpose is cradle of food through manufacturing of gastric juices which rest down, mix and also churn the food into a thin liquid.

The intestines

The intestines space located in between the stomach and also the anus and are divided into two significant sections: the small intestine and the huge intestine. The function of the small intestine is to absorb most ingested food. The big intestine is responsible because that absorption of water and excretion of solid waste material.

Critical to teach ideas

Humans may look different yet inside lock share the same component parts.The human being body contains major internal guts or body components which have the right to be conveniently identified. These organs different in size, shape, location and also function.Each organ has a specific function which contributes come the overall wellbeing the the person body.A team of organs whose tasks are carefully related are regularly referred to as a system.

Explore the relationships between ideas about internal human body organs in the Concept development Maps (Cell Functions).

Building students’ knowledge of internal body organs, how these room linked and why they work-related together as equipment is a complicated process. A useful starting point is to identify students’ currently ideas and also understandings about what is inside the body. Using everyday experiences to draw out these ideas is constantly powerful, such together recalling access time to the doctor, clinical operations/procedures, injuries, medical imaging/scans, posters and advertising images.

It is helpful to check out what inner organs look at like and where they are situated in bespeak to recognize the specific role of each and how each contributes to keeping the body alive and well. Teaching experiences should begin to encourage student to take into consideration how organs occupational together, i.e. How the occupational of one body organ is similar or contributes to the functioning of another. This idea leader to the more complex idea that body parts type connected solution that add to the work of the body as a whole.

Teaching activities

Bring the end students’ existing ideas

Encourage students to work in little groups to create a common drawing the what lock know about the inside of the person body. Take into consideration providing each team with an summary of a human body or have actually students trace approximately a team member lie on a huge sheet the paper. Certain students take into consideration the location, size and shape the body parts in their drawings. Have students include labels naming each internal component and think about getting the groups to study information about each organ.

Share pundit control

Provide every student group with at the very least three strips the paper. Have actually each team list three questions that occurred as they to be completing their drawings, focusing on things they establish they no know.

Display human body drawings and discuss similarities and also differences in between each group’s representations. Screen the questions and add further concerns to the list together they arise from these discussions and observations. As a class, finish a bundling activity sorting the questions. Student should talk about what groupings to use.

These questions deserve to then notify planning of additional investigations. Revisit these questions at the finish of each session and also respond where proper with brand-new information.

Clarify and also consolidate concepts for/by interaction to others

By making use of a jigsaw strategy, students relocate from ‘home’ groups to ‘expert’ groups, and then earlier to ‘home’ groups to collect and also share more detailed information around internal body organs. Working in ‘expert’ groups, students study a details internal body organ of the human body. As a an outcome of the experiences provided in this ‘expert’ group, every team member must have the ability to explain where the body organ is located, describe/represent the observable features of the organ and explain what the body organ does because that the person body and why that is important.

When working in professional groups it may be valuable for students to:

access helpful websites, science texts and visual imagesexplore scientific modelsexamine pet organs (following regulated health protocols)construct an easy models with materials like plasticinecomplete an easy investigations i beg your pardon demonstrate crucial features and also functions of the organ they are investigating.

Each member climate returns come the ‘home’ group and also shares their expertise, ‘teaching’ your colleagues this new information. Following experienced presentations the ‘home’ team returns come their initial body drawing and adds new information. These an altering body displays become an integral part of the ongoing investigation and also demonstrate a dynamic, an altering display.

Promote have fun on and clarification of existing ideas

To help students to construct richer an individual meanings because that ideas and also concepts connected to inner body offal encourage lock to finish sentence stems. Sentence stems are incomplete statements designed to administer a framework for insights and also observations. Some instances are: ‘The liver is…’ ‘The liver can…’ ‘A heart has…’ ‘The lungs can…’

Encourage students come write brief stories about one of the organs they have investigated, through a focus of ‘a work in the life’ of that organ.

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Challenge some existing ideas and also focus fist on hitherto overlooked detail

When students are familiar with a range of major internal organs, provide tasks that encourage students to take into consideration how one organ is similar to or contributes come the work-related of one more organ. Questioning students concerns such as, ‘How is this like/not choose a comparable organ?’ This motivates students to consider similarities and differences which they may normally overlook. Other questions can include:

How room the stomach and also bladder alike? how do castle differ?How room the kidneys and the liver alike? exactly how do lock differ?How is the huge intestine favor a tea strainer?How is the heart not choose a bike pump but more like an air mattress foot pump?

Identify diseases and conditions commonly associated with each major organ, such together heart attack, asthma, stomach ulcer, etc. Comment on contributing determinants to these, such as inherited conditions. Discover how medicine has arisen effective treatments for numerous of these, for example transplants, mechanical hearts and medication.​

Further resources

Science connected interactive discovering objects can be uncovered on the FUSE Teacher sources page.

To accessibility the interactive discovering object below, teachers need to login to FUSE and also search by Learning source ID:

Human Body – students work-related through a series of four learning objects around the framework and duty of the human being body. They compare people with other pets to explore adaptation come environments.Learning resource ID: K6MKAS