AcetoneGeneralPropertiesStructureHazardsSupplementary data pageRelated compounds
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Systematic namePropanone
Other namesβ-ketopropaneDimethyl ketone,
Molecular formulaCH3COCH3
SMILESCC(=O)C
Molar mass58.09 g/mol
AppearanceColorless liquid
CAS number<67-64-1>
Density and also phase0.79 g/cm³, liquid
Solubility in watermiscible
Melting point−94.9 °C (178.2 K)
Boiling point56.3 °C (329.4 K)
Viscosity0.32 cP at 20 °C
Molecular shapetrigonal planar in ~ C=O
Dipole moment2.91 D
MSDSExternal MSDS
EU classificationFlammable (F)Irritant (Xi)
NFPA 704

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R-phrasesR11, R36, R66, R67
S-phrasesS2, S9, S16, S26
Flash point−20 °C
Flammable limitsin waiting (by volume)2.55% - 12.80%
Autoignition temperature465 °C
RTECS numberAL31500000
Structure & propertiesn, εr, etc.

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Thermodynamic dataPhase behaviourSolid, liquid, gas
Spectral dataUV, IR, NMR, MS
Related ketonesButanone
Related solventsWaterEthanolIsopropanolToluene
Except where detailed otherwise, data are provided for products in their typical state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Acetone (also recognized as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and also β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative the the group of chemistry compounds well-known as ketones. That is a colorless, volatile, flammable liquid. In enhancement to being made as a chemical, acetone is also found naturally in the environment, including in small amounts in the human body.


Contents


Acetone is a highly effective solvent for countless organic compounds and also is the energetic ingredient in pond polish remover. That is likewise used come make assorted plastics, fibers, drugs, and other chemicals.

Occurrence in the human body

Small amounts of acetone are metabolically produced in the body, largely from fat. Fasting substantially increases that endogenous manufacturing (see ketosis). Acetone can be elevated in cases of diabetes.

Chemical synthesis

Most the the global industrial manufacturing of acetone (and phenol) is right now based on a method called the cumene process. This process converts two relatively cheap beginning materials, benzene and propylene, right into acetone and also phenol. One more reactant is oxygen (from the air).<1> The reaction is called after cumene (isopropyl benzene), the intermediate material formed throughout the process.

The as whole reaction might be written as follows:


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Before the innovation of the cumene process, acetone was developed by the dried distillation of acetates, such together calcium acetate.

During world War I, a an approach of creating acetone v bacterial fermentation was emerged by Chaim Weizmann, (who later became the an initial president the Israel), to aid the British battle effort.

Characteristics

Acetone has actually a melting suggest of −95.4 °C and boiling suggest of 56.53 °C. It has actually a relative thickness of 0.819 (at 0 °C). The acts together a solvent and is conveniently miscible with various other solvents, including water, ethanol, and also diethyl ether.

Uses

Another industrial application entails its use as a basic purpose cleaner in paint and also ink manufacturing operations.It deserve to be supplied as an agent in art work. Once rubbed top top the earlier of any kind of laser print or laser photocopy, it produces a rough ready effect.It has been offered in the produce of cordite.It is provided as a dry agent, as it is readily miscible through water and also is volatile.In the laboratory, acetone is used as a polar aprotic solvent (solvent the does no release hydrogen ions) in a range of necessary reactions.

Health effects

At fairly low concentrations, acetone is not an extremely toxic. That can, however, irritate and also damage skin and the mucosal lining the the mouth. The fumes have to be avoided, as inhalation may cause liver damage. In addition, one should always wear goggles when taking care of the substance, together it can reason permanent eye damage (corneal clouding).

Contamination that water, food (such together milk), or air (by acetone vapors) have the right to lead come chronic exposure to acetone. A number of acute poisoning cases have to be described. Inadvertently intake of big amounts that acetone may cause unconsciousness and death.

Animal research studies have shown that permanent exposure come acetone can damage the kidneys, liver, and also nerves, boost birth defects, and also lower the reproductive volume of males (only). That is not well-known if the same results would occur in humans. Pregnant women should avoid contact with acetone and its fumes, to prevent the opportunity of birth defects, including brain damage.

Interestingly, acetone has actually been presented to have actually anticonvulsant effects in animal models of epilepsy, in the absence of toxicity, as soon as administered at low (millimolar) concentrations.<3> It has actually been hypothesized that the high-fat, low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet used clinically to manage drug-resistant epilepsy in youngsters works through elevating acetone in the brain.<3>

Chemical safety measures

Due to chemistry incompatibilities, the is recommended the acetone need to be retained away native bromine, chlorine, nitric acid, sulfuric acid and also trichloromethane.

See more: How Many Unpaired Electrons Are In Phosphorus Have In Its Valence Shell?

See also

Notes


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