|Other names||β-ketopropaneDimethyl ketone,|
|Molar mass||58.09 g/mol|
|Density and also phase||0.79 g/cm³, liquid|
|Solubility in water||miscible|
|Melting point||−94.9 °C (178.2 K)|
|Boiling point||56.3 °C (329.4 K)|
|Viscosity||0.32 cP at 20 °C|
|Molecular shape||trigonal planar in ~ C=O|
|Dipole moment||2.91 D|
|EU classification||Flammable (F)Irritant (Xi)|
|R-phrases||R11, R36, R66, R67|
|S-phrases||S2, S9, S16, S26|
|Flash point||−20 °C|
|Flammable limitsin waiting (by volume)||2.55% - 12.80%|
|Autoignition temperature||465 °C|
|Structure & properties||n, εr, etc.|
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|Thermodynamic data||Phase behaviourSolid, liquid, gas|
|Spectral data||UV, IR, NMR, MS|
|Except where detailed otherwise, data are provided for products in their typical state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)|
Acetone (also recognized as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and also β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative the the group of chemistry compounds well-known as ketones. That is a colorless, volatile, flammable liquid. In enhancement to being made as a chemical, acetone is also found naturally in the environment, including in small amounts in the human body.
Acetone is a highly effective solvent for countless organic compounds and also is the energetic ingredient in pond polish remover. That is likewise used come make assorted plastics, fibers, drugs, and other chemicals.
Occurrence in the human body
Small amounts of acetone are metabolically produced in the body, largely from fat. Fasting substantially increases that endogenous manufacturing (see ketosis). Acetone can be elevated in cases of diabetes.
Most the the global industrial manufacturing of acetone (and phenol) is right now based on a method called the cumene process. This process converts two relatively cheap beginning materials, benzene and propylene, right into acetone and also phenol. One more reactant is oxygen (from the air).<1> The reaction is called after cumene (isopropyl benzene), the intermediate material formed throughout the process.
The as whole reaction might be written as follows:
Before the innovation of the cumene process, acetone was developed by the dried distillation of acetates, such together calcium acetate.
During world War I, a an approach of creating acetone v bacterial fermentation was emerged by Chaim Weizmann, (who later became the an initial president the Israel), to aid the British battle effort.
Acetone has actually a melting suggest of −95.4 °C and boiling suggest of 56.53 °C. It has actually a relative thickness of 0.819 (at 0 °C). The acts together a solvent and is conveniently miscible with various other solvents, including water, ethanol, and also diethyl ether.
UsesAnother industrial application entails its use as a basic purpose cleaner in paint and also ink manufacturing operations.It deserve to be supplied as an agent in art work. Once rubbed top top the earlier of any kind of laser print or laser photocopy, it produces a rough ready effect.It has been offered in the produce of cordite.It is provided as a dry agent, as it is readily miscible through water and also is volatile.In the laboratory, acetone is used as a polar aprotic solvent (solvent the does no release hydrogen ions) in a range of necessary reactions.
At fairly low concentrations, acetone is not an extremely toxic. That can, however, irritate and also damage skin and the mucosal lining the the mouth. The fumes have to be avoided, as inhalation may cause liver damage. In addition, one should always wear goggles when taking care of the substance, together it can reason permanent eye damage (corneal clouding).
Contamination that water, food (such together milk), or air (by acetone vapors) have the right to lead come chronic exposure to acetone. A number of acute poisoning cases have to be described. Inadvertently intake of big amounts that acetone may cause unconsciousness and death.
Animal research studies have shown that permanent exposure come acetone can damage the kidneys, liver, and also nerves, boost birth defects, and also lower the reproductive volume of males (only). That is not well-known if the same results would occur in humans. Pregnant women should avoid contact with acetone and its fumes, to prevent the opportunity of birth defects, including brain damage.
Interestingly, acetone has actually been presented to have actually anticonvulsant effects in animal models of epilepsy, in the absence of toxicity, as soon as administered at low (millimolar) concentrations.<3> It has actually been hypothesized that the high-fat, low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet used clinically to manage drug-resistant epilepsy in youngsters works through elevating acetone in the brain.<3>
Chemical safety measures
Due to chemistry incompatibilities, the is recommended the acetone need to be retained away native bromine, chlorine, nitric acid, sulfuric acid and also trichloromethane.
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