1-3.1 Thales the Miletus (ca 624–546 BCE)

Thales the Miletus is thought about to it is in the first philosopher by Aristotle and also others. Bertrand Russell identify Thales together the starting point of western philosophy. The pendant of Thales, Anaximander and Anaximenes, also hailed indigenous Miletus, Ionia. They to be the founders of the Milesian institution (also recognized as the Ionian School) the thought.

You are watching: Amber was used by the greeks to study

In the episode Deeper, Deeper, deeper Still of the collection Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey, an initial aired in may 2014, the host Neil deGrass Tyson stated that the ancient Greeks brought us the theater and also democracy. Yet the most vital contribution was the Thales to be the first person to describe natural phenomena without reference to the gods of mythology. Occasions such together earthquakes were no punishment that the gods because that something one did that displeased the gods however rather was because of natural product processes. As could be anticipated in an arising field, many of the explanations to be wrong. The influence of Thales towards the expertise of Nature is not in his explanations, however the fact the he to be the an initial to questioning questions about things as they really are and also not wondering around the mythical beginning of the world!

Most the what is known about Thales comes from the works of Herodotos. Thales to be an engineer, astronomer, financier, and politician. He to be the very first named Sage (wise man) the the 7 Sages of Greece. After a career in politics, Thales turned to the examine of organic phenomena and also introduced the examine of nature come the Greeks. Aristotle composed that Thales to be the founder of organic philosophy.

Thales traveled to Egypt, whereby he learned the geometry. Amongst his contributions, Thales was the very first to prove the a circle to be bisected by its diagonal, the very first to inscribe a right triangle within a circle, and also recognized the the base angle of one isosceles triangle were equal and that the angle of the vortex of intersecting lines to be equal. He measured the elevation of pyramids by the length of the zero they cast. Thales presented geometry come Greece.

Thales likewise visited Babylonia, wherein he learned around astronomy. According to Burnet (1920, p. 41), the many remarkable explain of Herodotos was that Thales predicted a solar eclipse throughout the war between the Lydians and the Medes. What is amazing is that Thales walk not recognize the reason of solar eclipses, and also that therefore Thales might not have known specifically where solar eclipses might occur. Astronomers today give May 28, 585 BCE, together the date of the eclipse.

Thales was the very first to find the period of one solstice to the next. He found the seasons, which he divided into 365 days. He to be the very first to state the the size of the sunlight was 1/720 component of the solar orbit simply as the Moon to be 1/720 component of the lunar orbit. To appreciate these accomplishments one need to go ago in time to this period and what was known about the solar system. It was noticeable by observation that both the Sun and also the Moon orbited about the resolved Earth.

Thales want to understand why points behaved the way they do. Thales was the founder that the ideology that every one of Nature had arisen from one source. According to Heraclitus Homericus (540–480 BCE), Thales drew this conclusion from the monitoring that most things turn into air, slime, and also earth. Thales hence proposed the things adjust from one kind to another. Thales observed that water was vital in day-to-day life. Most things were moist. Life needed water for nourishment, and also many points lived near water. Thales thought that water was the beginning of all things in Nature. To explain earthquakes, that envisioned the earth floating ~ above water. The tide of the water practically “rocked the boat,” thus causing earthquakes.


C.R. Cork, in digital Textiles, 2015

1.1.2 historical metallized fibres

The first description that static power was through Thales of Miletus in the sixth century BCE (Noad, 1859), but the modern-day science of power was not formulated until the eighteenth century. However, electrically conducting textile fibres have a long history that goes ago to antiquity. Because that example, gold-coated threads were developed in ancient times prior to the contemporary discovery the electricity but were, the course, designed for aesthetic purposes alone. In a story acquainted to Homer, the probe Jason goes looking for a golden fleece (Rhodius, third Century B.C.). Might this have been a referral to a fleece offered to collection gold or to fabricated gold fibres?

Historically, there have been various approaches for producing metal thread for textiles. Steels were hammered and also cut into foil strips and also then wrapped around a core. Yellow threads made by pack a flat ribbon that gold roughly a silk core space reported indigenous a second century sarcophagus in Cyprus (Conroy and also García, 2010). Alternatively, steel wires were wound directly approximately a core. In another approach, animal leather or document was coated with gold leaf and also then provided directly, or again, wound roughly a main point yarn (Hauser-Schäublin and also Ardika, 2008). The techniques used often relied on the geographical origin. For example, metal-coated strips of record were used in China, whilst hammered and also cut strips that foil are reported from ancient Egypt and also Persia (Hauser-Schäublin and also Ardika, 2008).

A paper by Csiszár et al. (2013) defines manufacturing approaches for metallized fibres make from the 4th century ad onwards. The steel strips were a couple of tenths the a millimetre in width and up come 70 mm in length. These could be wound roughly a textile main point or supplied flat. Csiszár et al. (2013) also describe exactly how silver gilt object took over from gold approximately the an initial millennium. With reference to the literature, Csiszár et al. (2013) report the ~ 70 varieties of metallized thread are known.

Metal object with animal hair cores are reported from about 1200 come 1300 AD (Skals, 1991). A file on the clean of copper embroidery threads on an archaeological textile describes a towel embroidered with copper subject (Abdel-Kareem and Harith, 2008). Again, these were created from solid metal strips wound approximately a cotton core that had actually been embroidered to produce a motif.


Details that gold and also silver subject in Renaissance tapestries room reported through Hacke et al. (2003). Various metallized threads native the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries in southern America are defined by Muros et al. (2007). Figure 1.1 shows a seventeenth century silver-wrapped silk thread uncovered in Dorchester in the unified Kingdom.



K.M. Blacksmith C.ENG., M.I.E.E., P. HOLROYD C.ENG., M.I.MECH.E., A.M.I.STRUCT.E., in design Principles for electric Technicians, 1968

Publisher Summary

The natural magnet, dubbed lodestone or magnetite, was stated by Thales of Miletus. This thing discusses the magnetic impact of an electric current. The magnetic field of a irreversible magnet is regularly used in engineering, because that example, in instruments and also magnetic chucks. For countless applications, the permanent magnet field is not solid enough or a ar of variable stamin is required. In this cases, one electric existing is offered to set up the field. The chapter likewise discusses the electromagnets and also electromagnetic induction. Electromagnets have many applications in engineering and also are offered in electric bells, choose up magnetic products in scrap yards, in electrical motors and also generators, telephone receivers, radio speakers, relays, and also circuit breakers. The chapter additionally describes the force on a conductor in a magnetic field such as magnetomotive force (m.m.f.) and also magnetising force, and also discusses force in between parallel conductors delivering current.


Yıldız İlhami, Craig MacEachern, in comprehensive Energy Systems, 2018

1.2.3.4.1 exploration of electricity

1.2.3.4.1.1 Thales that Miletus

The faster known exploration of electrical energy comes in 585 BC in a statement composed by Thales that Miletus. Thales well-known the attractive strength of amber rubbed with pet fur as well as iron to lodestone. Thales deadline the objects to having actually some sort of soul, yet what that truly found were the first observations of revolution electricity and also magnetism <48>.

1.2.3.4.1.2 wilhelm Gilbert

Very little occurred in the century that adhered to until Englishman wilhelm Gilbert came out through his book in 1600, titled De Magnete. Gilbert was the very first to use the terms electrical energy (from the Greek indigenous electron because that amber), electrical force, magnetic pole, and electric attraction. Additionally, Gilbert had actually an also greater contribution to the human being of science. In his book, he listed how scientists repetitively made cases of research yet never presented proof native an experiment. Gilbert adjusted this method of conducting research study by giving gross detail of his experiments on static electricity so that the results might be reproduced by others if warranted <48>.

1.2.3.4.1.3 rose oil von Guericke and also Charles François du Fay

The year 1663 observed Otto von Guericke do another crucial discovery in the expertise of electricity. Von Guericke built a sulfur round with a wood rod through the middle so the the sphere could be quickly rotated. By rubbing the sphere, it was found that the ball would tempt objects, such together chaff and also feathers. This phenomenon was not a new discovery; however, von Guericke provided that once the chaff or feather touch the sphere it was automatically repelled. This to be the check of electricity’s attractive and repulsive nature as detailed by Niccolo Cabeo in 1620; however, currently it was confirmed that an object׳s fee is no fixed. In developing his rotating sphere, von Guericke had in fact produced the world’s first electrical machine. This makers general style would remain the primary method of electrical energy generation because that years to come. In 1733, Charles Francois du Fay recurring this experiment and also concluded the the fee was being moved from the round to the feather in repeated cycles. The feather gained charge every time that contacted the sphere and was repulsed; together it lost charge it dropped toward the sphere and also the cycle recurring <48>. Du Fay termed these two charges resinous (−) and also vitreous (+).

1.2.3.4.1.4 Pieter van Musschenbroek

The an initial major breakthrough in managing electricity comes from Pieter van Musschenbroek, a netherlands scientist, who was looking at methods of storing electrical charge. Van Musschenbroek developed a device that contained a glass jar filled through water and wrapped in metal foil ~ above the inside and outside. He referred to as his maker the Leyden jar, ~ the city the was constructed in. A charge was used between two electrodes, one inside and one external the jar, utilizing an electrostatic generator with the idea the this would save the charge. That was thought that the fee was stored in the water; however, us now know that it to be in reality the glass that was storing the charge. In order to check if the Leyden jug worked, valve Musschenbroek touch the inside and also outside that the seasoned simultaneously, later on writing that he “would not repeat the experiment if available the totality kingdom the France.” The Leyden jar worked quite well and in structure it, valve Musschenbroek had invented the world’s very first practical capacitor <48>.

1.2.3.4.1.5 Benjamin Franklin

The male often credited with the discovery of electricity is American Benjamin Franklin. If Franklin’s contribute to the expertise of electrical energy were substantial it would certainly be difficult to conclude the he in fact discovered electricity. Franklin’s an initial contribution to the field was that electricity acted as a solitary fluid, not two different fluids as defined by du Fay. In 1747, Franklin hypothesized that once two objects to be rubbed with each other it was not the confident and negative fluids gift transferred between the objects, yet rather the absence or overabundance of a solitary fluid, transferred between the objects, which figured out the optimistic or negative state the the object. To check this, Franklin devised an experiment whereby persons A and B are standing upon a sheet of wax, and also a third person C is was standing on the floor. Before anything happens, if there is contact between any of the persons then there will certainly be no shock. Person A climate rubs a glass tube, thereby, transporting his power into the tube. Person B then touches his knuckle come the tube drawing the power originally from person A into his very own body. Many thanks to the wax sheet on the floor, the electric charge in preserved within their bodies. In this instance we say that human being A is negative charged as he has provided up several of his electricity and person B is positively charged as he has actually taken some electrical energy on. If human C touches either human A or B he will be shocked as result of the potential difference between them. However, if persons A and B touch lock will obtain a shock greater than that of touching human C due to the greater potential difference in between them. After the instance of the shock any contact does not result in an additional shock. This experiment aided in proving the one electrical fluid theory <48>. Franklin’s second significant contribution to be his discovery that lightning was indeed the same electrical power observed in small-scale electric experiments. To carry out this he famously tied a metal key to the end of a dragon string and also flew it during a thunderstorm. Franklin uncovered he to be able to attract sparks from the vital confirming the nature that lightning. This caused the design and also implementation that lightning rods throughout America and also eventually the world. The result was drastic palliation in lightning related injuries and damage <49>.

1.2.3.4.1.6 Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta

In 1786, Italian physician and professor Luigi Galvani made what would turn out to be a critical discovery on how the nervous system operates. Galvani’s lab had actually an electrical generator and also he provided that if the generator was sparking, while he touch a dissected frog’s leg through a steel scalpel the the leg would twitch violently. This led Galvani come the conclusion that pet nervous equipment were managed by electrical impulses. When he to be correct in this assumption, Galvani went on come hypothesize that the electric impulses were created by the frog itself. He based this presumption on a test he performed, whereby he could reason the frog leg to twitch just by suspending it in a fluid and touching the with various metals. This hypothesis, however, was no satisfactory because that Italian Alessandro Volta, that felt the the electrical impulses could not maybe be created by the frog itself. What Volta discovered most fascinating was the the twitch only developed when 2 distinctly various metals were used. Additionally, Volta ended up being frustrated by the reality that he can not draw any type of kind the spark from the frog foot (the true indicator of electrical current). Based upon these observations, Volta chose that the frog foot itself to be irrelevant. He designed a test whereby he take it strips the zinc and brass and placed a salt water soaked piece of cardboard between them. He climate stacked a variety of these piles on top of one another (as countless as 60). What Volta uncovered was that he could easily and repeatedly draw a spark from the pile and that unequal the Leyden seasoned the device did not need to be recharged. Volta had developed the world’s an initial battery, an creation that would totally change technological innovation <48>.


Petr Vaníček, in Encyclopedia the Physical science and modern technology (Third Edition), 2003

I.A Brief history of Geodesy

Little documentation of the geodetic accomplishments of the earliest civilizations, the Sumerian, the Egyptian, the Chinese, and the Indian, has actually survived. The an initial firmly documented ideas around geodesy go back to Thales the Miletus (ca. 625–547 BC), Anaximander of Miletus (ca. 611–545 BC), and also the institution of Pythagoras (ca. 580–500 BC). The Greek student of geodesy consisted of Aristotle (384–322 BC), Eratosthenes (276–194 BC)—the an initial reasonably exact determination the the size of the earth, yet not bring away seriously till 17 centuries later—and Ptolemy (ca. 75–151 AD).


In the center Ages, the lack of understanding of the actual size the the earth led Toscanelli (1397–1482) come his renowned misinterpretation that the people (Fig. 1), which accused lured Columbus to his very first voyage west. Quickly after, the golden age of expedition got under way and v it the use of position determination by huge means. The real degree of the world was revealed to have actually been close come Eratosthenes's prediction, and people began looking for more quantitative renovations of their conceptual model that the earth. This led to brand-new measurements ~ above the surface of the earth by a Dutchman Snellius (in the 1610s) and a Frenchman Picard (in the 1670s) and the an initial improvement on Eratosthenes's results. Interested reader can uncover fascinating details about the earliest geodetic events inBerthon and also Robinson (1991).


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At about the same time, the notion of the earth's heaviness started forming up with the initiatives of a Dutchman Stevin (1548–1620), Italians Galileo (1564–1642) and Borelli (1608–1679), an brother Horrox (1619–1641), and also culminating in Newton's (1642–1727) theory of gravitation. Newton's concept predicted the the earth's world should be contempt oblate as result of the spinning of the earth around its polar axis. A Frenchman Cassini (1625–1712) discussed this prediction; consequently, the French Academy the Science arranged two expeditions to Peru and also to Lapland under the management of Bouguer and also Maupertuis come measure two meridian arcs. The results shown the validity that Newton's prediction. In addition, these measurements gave us the first definition of a meter, as one ten-millionth component of the earth's quadrant.

For 200 years, from around mid-18th century on, geodesy saw an unprecedented growth in that is application. Place determination by terrestrial and also astronomical method was needed for making maps, and this service, which to be naturally detailed by geodesists and also the photo of a geodesist as being only a provider of positions, survives in part quarters till today. In the meantime, the advancement of geodesy together a science ongoing with contribute by Lagrange (1736–1813), Laplace (1749–1827), Fourier (1768–1830), Gauss (1777–1855), asserted by part geodesists to have actually been the real founder of geodetic science, Bessel (1784–1846), Coriolis (1792–1843), Stokes (1819–1903), Poincaré (1854–1912), and also Albert Einstein. For a summary of this contributions, seeVaníček and Krakiwsky (1986, section 1.3).


A.M. Seyam, ... T. Theyson, in sensible Finishes for Textiles, 2015

17.2 Electrostatic phenomena

Electrostatic phenomena are connected to continuous or slowly dissipating static charge that is developed on one insulating product by contact and separation with various other material. The phenomena were very first documented about 600 bc by the Greek philosopher Thales of Miletus, that experimented through rubbing materials against each other (Slade, 1998; Joachim et al., 1965). He noticed that after rubbing amber with various other materials, such together hemp and cat fur, the amber acquired a revolution charge and was maybe to entice light materials such together dust and ash. At the rotate of the seventeenth century, william Gilbert experimented with static accumulation of amber and also other materials and also he published his publication on magnetism in 1600 (Basford, 2001). In this book the word ‘electric’ was provided for the first time, which is a sport of the Greek word for amber. About 1730, Stephen Gray offered the terms conductor and also insulator. In 1733, Charles François de Cisternay DuFay documented two varieties of electricity: vitreous (glass) and also ‘resinous’ (amber) (Slade, 1998). Vitreous attractive resinous yet repels various other vitreous. In his publication titled Experiments and also Observations ~ above Electricity, Benjamin Franklin supplied the state ‘negative’ and ‘positive’ because that the very first time to describe static charge in 1751 (James, 2008).

Electrostatic charge is generally believed to be a surface ar phenomenon due to the fact that it is produced after contact and also separation of two materials. The triboelectric charge is generated after the separation the two products which have remained in contact and also undergone an exchange of electron or ions in between the two products at the contacting surfaces. In the instance of conductive material(s) the charge will certainly flow easily to the ground. In the instance of insulating material(s) the charge will degeneration over a duration of time depending on the neighboring conditions.

Most fabricated fibres (such as polyester, polypropylene and nylon) space classified together insulators with innate resistance values >1014 Ω cm. Thus textile commodities made from artificial fibres have tendency to exhibition electrostatic charge build-up that would need a lengthy time (several hrs or days) to dissipate (Németh et al., 2003). To get over the issues linked with slow decay of triboelectric charge, textile assets from man-made fibres need surface treatment through antistatic conductive chemistry or the incorporation of fibres or filaments include conductive materials such as metal or carbon.


Rituparna Barooah, in Smart medical care for disease Diagnosis and also Prevention, 2020

18.5 history of physiological sciences

As long ago as 1000–2000 BCE wellness related concepts and also principles were prevalent in China, Mesopotamia in Greece and even in old India which to be attributed to Charaka and Sushruta, Hippocrates and also Aristotle. After around 1500 years’ contribution of Galen was recorded in 130–200 CE followed again by a Dark age of 1500 yrs. Wherein there was no document of any kind of scientific wellness related study. The examine of physiological sciences reached its peak throughout Roman Empire around the first century.

Hippocrates had defined four varieties of liquid in the human body; sport in the relationship of this resulted in illness. His theory was comparable to old Ayurvedic principles in plenty of fronts.

Jean Fernel, a French physiologist (1497–1558) presented the hatchet 'physiology’ definition study of nature. He likewise described the spinal canal (Fernelius crater, in the Moon, is named after him).

Many believe Thales of Miletus, who was a Greek philosopher to be the very first Physiologist (600 BCE). The an initial modern physiologist was “William Harvey” (1578–1657) who explained the vascular pattern and blood flow. William Harvey to be the college student of Fabricius a teacher that Anatomy in ~ Padua, Italy. Fabricius was the college student of Vesalius.

Harvey’s summary of circulation was crucial milestone in physiology. His book ‘An anatomical dissertation top top the motion of the heart and blood in animals’ was critical in the breakthrough of expertise in human being physiology. The duration of study in Physiological science from 1660 come 1750 to be the gold period in the history of physiology <8>.

William Beaumont in 1822 applied physiology to study gastric duty in one exposed gastric mucosa in man. <9>.

Herman Boerhaave Frost (1660–1738), a physician at Leyden, Holland and also author of 'Institutiones Medicae' in 1708 established physiology as independent technique in clinical curriculum. Albrecht Von Haller writer the very first textbook the Physiology called ‘Elementa Physiologiae’ in 1757.

There were two leading schools of Physiology in Europe during this time: The French institution spearheaded by Francois Magendie (1783–1855) and the German school led by johannes Muller (1801–58) and Carl Ludwig (1816–75). The period between 1850 and also 1975 experienced a higher stride in advance of Physiology and hence known as the second golden age of Physiology.

The very first journal of Physiology was founded by Mogendue. His student Claude young name (1813–78) very first tabled the ide of milieu interna. This theory was further carried forward by Walter Cannon of America who coined the term homeostasis. His ‘An introduction to the study of experimental Medicine’ was published in 1865.

Hermann Helmholtz (1821–94) to be responsible because that formulating the regulation of conservation of energy, innovation of ophthalmoscope, concept of color vision and also fundamentals of physiology of hearing. He to be a college student of Mueller Ludwig who established the academy of Physiology in ~ Leipzig which to be a desire seat of examine of Physiological sciences. He also invented the kymograph and was a pioneering scientist at pet experimentation.

It to be the discovery of the ‘cell’ together the building block by Matthias Schleiden and also Theodor Schwann that noted the compelled thrust to research study in the field of Physiology <7>.

Thereafter, research right into physiological functions evolved rapidly through Joseph Lister' s summary of coagulation and inflammation in 1858, Ivan Pavlov and his occupational in the field of neuroscience and also conditioned reflex in 1891. Ivan Pavlov to be awarded the Nobel Prize for his exploration of neural regulation the salivary, gastric and also pancreatic secretion.

In the field of endocrine physiology, the very first hormone come be uncovered was ‘adrenaline’, isolated and purified by john Jacob Abel and Jokichi Takamine in 1901. Insulin was later on discovered and extracted by Frederick Banting and also Charles best in 1923 <9>.

The Harvard tiredness Library for exercise and Environmental Library, thereafter, came into existence in 1927.

Ionic device of neural transmission and skeletal contraction by Andrew Huxley and Alan Hodgkin in 1952 was another important milestone.

The discovery of the dual helix framework of DNA by Watson and Francis Crick in 1962 paved means for advancement of the field of genetics. Genome discovery in 2000 to be a huge breakthrough with its affect on an illness prevention and also treatment.

Discovery of second Messenger ‘cyclic AMP’, Earl Sutherland, exploration of ‘Patch Clamp’ an approach in 1991 by Erwin Neher and Best Sakman, discovery of Nitrous Oxide together a signaling molecule by Robert Furchgott, Ferid Murad and Louis Ignarro, Cell growth regulation defined by Leand Heartwell, Paul Nurse and Timothy Hunt to be Nobel compensation winning strides in Physiology. Various other Nobel compensation winning discoveries were exploration of water networks by Peter Agre in 2003, G protein receptor discovery in 2012 in the field of molecular biology.


J.A. Moyer, ... L.W. Martin, in Epitaxial expansion of complex Metal Oxides, 2015

6.2.1 Magnetism in oxides

Magnetic materials violate time-reversal symmetry, however are invariant under spatial inversion; in various other words, as soon as magnetic moments are current in a crystal, the antisymmetry operator must likewise be present. The 32 timeless crystallographic allude groups do not have actually the antisymmetry operator and also hence cannot fully describe the the contrary of magnetic crystals. Symmetry evaluation reveals 122 complete magnetic an are groups that which just 31 can support ferromagnetism (Aizu, 1970; Laughlin, Willard, & McHenry, 2000). A material is claimed to be a ferromagnet when there is long-range, parallel alignment the the atomic moments leading to a spontaneous net magnetization also in the absence of an exterior field. Ferromagnetic materials undergo a phase shift from a high-temperature phase that does not have macroscopic magnetization (atomic moments room randomly aligned bring about a paramagnetic phase) come a low-temperature phase the does at the so-called Curie temperature (TC). There space other species of magnetism consisting of antiferromagnetism (atomic moments room aligned anti-parallel) and also ferrimagnetism (dipoles align anti-parallel, however one subset of dipoles is larger than the other, causing a net moment). The theory of magnetism is a rich field and beyond the scope of this chapter, however is constructed upon the idea that quantum mechanical exchange energy, which causes electrons v parallel spins and also therefore parallel moment to have actually lower energy than spins v anti-parallel spin. Magnetic materials uncover pervasive use in all walks the life, indigenous information modern technology (storage, sensing. And also communications) to wellness sciences (e.g., cancer treatment) and beyond.

A history of magnetism is a history of oxide materials. From casual observations in classical times (it is stated that the Greek theorist Thales the Miletus, 634–546 BC, is believed to it is in the an initial person to describe magnetism after ~ observing the attraction of stole by the mineral magnetite) to an permitting force for developing the human being (including navigation, power production, and more), magnetic oxides have played a key role over the years. Because that a complete background of magnetism in materials see Verschuur (1993). Of details interest for the first few thousand year of the examine of magnetism, there was just one material, which happened known together lodestone (in old English, “lode” is words for lead) or the iron-oxide step magnetite (Fe3O4). Only after 1819 walk a rapid growth of our knowledge of magnetic materials occur. Just after the advance of a spin-dependent design for the exchange communication in 1928 by Heisenberg to be it possible, however, to know the nature that magnetic oxides that had overcame the landscape because that the previous millennia. Native that point on, the knowledge of magnetism in oxides occurred at a feverish pace. Of basic importance to this early on work to be a series of publications by Lois Néel, who arisen the idea that antiferromagnetism (Néel, 1932). By the late 1950s, a rapid growth of technology, particularly high-frequency devices, engendered rapid research in ferromagnetic oxides, and Smit and also Wijn in their book on ferrites detailed that in 1959 the properties of magnetic oxides were better understood 보다 the properties of metallic ferromagnets (Smit & Wijn, 1959).

What arose from this work-related was an understanding that magnetism in oxides is fundamentally different from the in metallic, elemental systems. Magnetism in oxides is usually mediated with indirect exchange (through nonmagnetic anions), which provides rise to amazing coupling effects, including, because that example, superexchange, double exchange, and also RKKY coupling (named ~ the work-related of Ruderman and Kittel (1954), Kasuya (1956), and also Yosida (1957)). Briefly, superexchange it s okay its surname from the reality that it extends the normally very-short-range exchange interaction to a longer range (Stöhr & Siegmann, 2006). The idea that exchange might be mediated by one intermediate, nonmagnetic atom was placed forth in 1934 (Kramers, 1934), and the concept was formally developed by Anderson in 1950 (Anderson, 1950). Superexchange is an essential effect in ionic solids whereby 3d and also 2p orbitals of change metal cations (TM) and also anions interact, and it describes, through a straightforward valence-bonding argument, how antiferromagnetic (AF) bespeak occurs. Double exchange, very first proposed by Zener in 1951 (Zener, 1951), explains the magneto-conductive nature of these mixed-valence compounds and also delineates the system for to dance of an electron from one website to an additional through the mediating oxygen atom. Because the O2− ion has full p-orbitals, the movement from one ion through O2− to one more ion is excellent in two steps. The electron is thus delocalized over the entire TM–O–TM group, and also the cations are stated to it is in of mixed valence. This is aided by the truth that spin-flips are not allowed in electron-hopping processes, and also thus the is much more energetically favorable if the magnetic framework of the two cations is identical; therefore, ferromagnetic alignment of moments is achieved. Finally, RKKY exchange is not based upon the relationship in between bonding and also magnetism, however instead is the concept that a neighborhood moment deserve to induce a spin polarization in a neighboring conduction electron sea. Studies proved that the turn polarization the the conduction electrons oscillates in sign as a function of distance from the localized moment, and this spin information deserve to be brought over reasonably long distances.


N.D. Epiotis, D.K. Henze, in Encyclopedia that Physical scientific research and technology (Third Edition), 2003

I.A Elementary and also Atomic Concepts

The routine table, the good classificatory scheme of chemistry, is based upon two that the most fundamental concepts in physical science—elements and atoms. In your rudimentary forms, both the these concepts were inventions of the pre-Socratic Greek philosophers. The earliest of this thinkers was Thales of Miletus (ca. 624–545 BC), that subscribed come the idea the all matter is derived from one substance. When he taken into consideration water to it is in the primary school substance, others favor Anaximenes, Heraclitus, and Anaximander favored air, fire, and also apeiron (an eternal, endless element), respectively.

Some time about 450 BC, Empedocles (ca. 490–430 BC) appears to have actually synthesized some of these concepts in his discussion that all issue is comprised of miscellaneous mixtures of 4 primordial substances—earth, air, fire, and water. The two biggest philosophers of classical antiquity, Plato (428–347 BC) and Aristotle (384–322 BC), embraced Empedocles's 4 elements, despite Aristotle included a fifth, the quita essentia, which comprised the crystalline spheres the the heavens. While part scholars accepted these facets as late together the 17th century, that is necessary to realize the these four aspects were an ext philosophical constructs than specific entities through chemical consequences.

Similarly, atoms were proposed through the ancient Greeks not so much to explain certain natural phenomena regarding account because that permanence amid change. Atomists like Democritus that Abdera (ca.460–370 BC) said that a body could not it is in infinitely subdivided. The process ultimately had actually to stop at the level of an “uncuttable” particle, literally,ατ oμ os. The roman inn poet, Lucretius (ca. 100–55 BC), asserted that atoms and the void constitute all things and also elaborated that idea to explain meteorology and also geology, sensation and also sex, cosmology and sociology, and even life and also the mind. In spite of such ambitious comprehensiveness, atom were not as widely embraced as were the four earthly elements, largely due to the fact that Aristotle rejected them. Nevertheless, the concept of can be fried particles of issue was sometimes invoked as a working hypothesis by researchers such as Gassendi, Galileo, Boyle, and also Newton. Indeed, Newton went therefore far regarding express this opinion: “It appears probable to me, that God in the beginning form'd issue in solid, massy, hard, impenetrable, movable Particles.”

Thus, through 1700, the development made in chemistry to be calling the idea of four aspects into significant question, while the idea of atom was acquiring scientific currency. The century which adhered to did lot to further establish the latter and to overthrow the former. Antoine Laurant Lavoisier (1743–1794), the Frenchman regularly being credited with gift the “Father of modern-day Chemistry,” enunciated a working definition of “simple substance” in his 1789 text, Traité Élementaire de Chimie. The an initial edition included a table of 33 elementary substances that could not be decomposed by chemical operations. Within this table, the aspects were share into groups such as métalliques and also non métalliques. Most of the metals noted by Lavoisier (for example, antimony, silver, copper, and iron) had been known and used for centuries. This was also the situation with particular of the nonmetals such as carbon and sulfur. However, Lavoisier's list additionally included hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, three gases which had actually recently been isolated and, many thanks to his theoretical system, correctly determined as specific, elementary substances. Essentially all of Lavoisier's original 33 substances still show up in a modern periodic table. Lavoisier's guess that the 5 “earths” the includes—lime, magnesia, baryta, alumnia, and silica—may in fact be complex substances has been substantiated. We now know them to it is in oxides of calcium, magnesium, barium, aluminum, and also silicon. 2 of his entries, light and also heat, are not products at all. Nevertheless, Lavoisier's concept of basic substances and also his preliminary list proved to be of inestimable prestige for the advance of chemistry and also the periodic classification of the elements.

For example, a plainly defined working principle of an facet was vital for the elaboration that the atomic theory by john Dalton (1766–1844). In 1808, this English schoolmaster published A brand-new System of chemistry Philosophy in i m sorry he put forth his postulates about the framework of matter. Every element, Dalton argued, is constituted of identical, immutable, and also uniquely properties atoms. When facets combine to form compounds, their atoms hold together in a fixed proportion that is properties of the compound. Because these numbers room fixed, the elementary composition of the compound, by mass, is also constant. This last property could be fairly accurately determined, even in Dalton's time. However, Dalton had actually no direct way of ascertaining the correct atomic proportion of the aspects of any type of compound. Together a consequence, he might not calculate, v confidence, the relative masses that the atoms of the assorted elements—their atomic masses or atom weights. The atomic masses that the elements and also the atomic ratios characteristics of certain compounds are materialized in the elementary school mass composition of the compounds. As soon as the correct atomic proportion is known, atomic masses deserve to be conveniently calculated indigenous mass composition. Alternatively, understanding of atomic masses permits conversion of ingredient by mass to composition by atom ratio. However, Dalton challenged the dilemma of an equation through two unknowns.

That dilemma ongoing to torment chemistry for 50 year and, hence, restricted the energy of the atom theory. Since of the importance of mass relationships in chemistry reactions, there was a consensus that the characteristic atom mass of an element was a far-ranging property. However, there was tiny agreement on what the correct values were. Hydrogen was normally recognized to it is in the “lightest” aspect and, hence, was commonly assigned an atom mass of 1. Family member to this standard, the atom mass of oxygen was around 8, follow to some scientists, or 16, according to others. The instance had reached such a i m really sorry impass the the progression of chemistry was being impeded. Therefore, a special worldwide conference was convened in Karlsruhe, Germany, in 1860, through the expressed aim of resolving the man over atomic masses. Significantly, the two researchers most clearly associated v the development of the regular table, the Russian Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev and the German Julias Lothar Meyer, were amongst those in attendance. As soon as a collection of trusted atomic masses was welcomed by the scientific community , the time was ripe for the formulation the the regular law and the table based on it.


John D. Enderle PhD, in arrival to Biomedical design (Third Edition), 2012

12.2.2 electrical power in the Eighteenth Century

Before 1800, a significant inventory of truth relating to electrical energy in general and bioelectricity in specific had accumulated. The Egyptians and also Greeks had known that particular fish could deliver considerable shocks come an biology in their aqueous environment. Static electricity had been discovered by the Greeks, who developed it by rubbing resin (amber or, in Greek, elektron) with cat's fur or through rubbing glass through silk. For example, Thales of Miletus report in 600 BC that a piece of amber when vigorously rubbed with a towel responded through an “attractive power.” irradiate particles such together chaff, bits of papyrus, and also thread jumped to the amber indigenous a distance and were hosted to it. The production of static electricity at the time became linked with one aura.

More than 2 thousand year elapsed before the English physician William Gilbert choose up where Thales left off. Gilbert confirmed that not only amber but also glass, agate, diamond, sapphire, and also many other materials when rubbed displayed the very same attractive power explained by the Greeks. However, Gilbert did not report the particles could likewise be repelled. It to be not till a century later that electrostatic repulsion was provided by Charles DuFay (1698–1739) in France.

The next step in the progress of electrification to be an advancement of the friction process. Rotating rubbing machines were emerged to give constant and large production the electrostatic charges. The first of these frictional electrical machines was occurred by otto von Guericke (1602–1685) in Germany. In the eighteenth century, electrification became a popular science, and experimenters discovered many new attributes of electric behavior. In England, Stephen Gray (1666–1736) confirmed that electrification might flow hundreds of feet through simple twine as soon as suspended by silk threads. Thus, the theorized that electrification to be a “fluid.” Substituting metal wires for the support threads, he discovered that the dues would conveniently dissipate. Thus, the knowledge that various materials can either conduct or insulate started to take shape. The “electrics,” choose silk, glass, and resin, held charge. The “nonelectrics,” prefer metals and water, conducted charges. Gray likewise found that electrification might be moved by proximity the one charged body to another without straight contact. This was proof of electrification by induction, a principle that was used later in machines that produced electrostatic charges.

In France, Charles F. DuFay, a member of the French Academy of Science, was intrigued by Gray's experiments. DuFay verified by comprehensive tests that almost all materials, with the exemption of metals and also those too soft or liquid to be rubbed, can be electrified. Later, however, he uncovered that if metals were insulated, they could hold the largest electrical charge the all. DuFay uncovered that rubbed glass would repel a piece of yellow leaf, vice versa, rubbed amber, gum, or wax attractive it. That concluded the there were two different kinds of electric “fluids,” which he labeling “vitreous” and “resinous.” He uncovered that if unlike dues attracted each other, favor charges repelled. This suggested that there were two kinds that electricity.

In the American colonies, Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790) ended up being interested in electricity and also performed experiment that resulted in his hypothesis about the “one-fluid theory.” Franklin stated that there was just one type of electricity and also that the electric effects created by friction reflected the separation of electrical fluid so one body consisted of an excess and the various other a deficit. He said that “electrical fire” is a common facet in all bodies and also is generally in a well balanced or neutral state. Overabundance or deficiency of charge, such as that created by the friction between materials, developed an imbalance. Electrification by friction was, thus, a process of separation fairly than a development of charge. By balancing a charge acquire with one equal fee loss, Franklin had actually implied a law—namely, that the amount of the electrical charge is conserved. Franklin guessed that as soon as glass to be rubbed, the overabundance charge appeared on the glass, and he referred to as that “positive” electricity. The thus created the direction the conventional existing from confident to negative. The is now known that the electrons creating a current move in the opposite direction.

Out the this experimental task came an underlying philosophy or law. Approximately the end of the eighteenth century, the knowledge of electrostatics was greatly qualitative. There were way for detecting however not for measuring, and the relationships in between the charges had actually not been formulated. The following step to be to quantify the phenomena of electrostatic fee forces.

For this determination, the scientific scene shifted ago to France and also the engineer-turned-physicist Charles A. Coulomb (1726–1806). Coulomb demonstrated that a pressure is exerted as soon as two fee particles are put in the vicinity of each other. However, that went a step beyond experimental observation by deriving a general relationship that fully expressed the size of this force. His inverse-square legislation for the pressure of attraction or repulsion between charged bodies became one the the major building blocks in knowledge the effect of a fundamental property the matter-charge. However, in spite of this wide array of discoveries, that is important to keep in mind that prior to the time the Galvani and also Volta, there to be no resource that might deliver a continuous flow of electric fluid, a term that we now know implies both charge and also current.

In enhancement to a career together statesman, diplomat, publisher, and signer of both the explanation of Independence and also the Constitution, Franklin to be an avid experimenter and inventor. In 1743 in ~ the age of 37, Franklin witnessed through excited interest a demonstration of static power in Boston and also resolved to go after the strange results with investigate of his own. Purchasing and devising various apparati, Franklin became an avid electric enthusiast. He launched into many years the experiments with electrostatic effects.

Franklin, the scientist, is many popularly recognized for his dragon experiment during a thunderstorm in June 1752 in Philadelphia. Although assorted European investigators had actually surmised the identity of electricity and lightning, Franklin was the first to prove by an experimental procedure and demonstration that lightning was a giant electric spark. Having actually previously noted the advantages of sharp steel points for illustration “electrical fire,” Franklin put them to use as “lightning rods.” mounted vertically ~ above rooftops, they would certainly dissipate the thundercloud fee gradually and harmlessly come the ground. This to be the an initial practical application in electrostatics.

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Franklin's work was well received by the Royal culture in London. The origin of such noteworthy output from remote and colonial America do Franklin particularly marked. In his countless trips to Europe as statesman and also experimenter, Franklin was lionized in social circles and also eminently regarded by scientists.