This publication is plan to enhance Mississippi State university barisalcity.orgPublication 2244 Pine wood Volume-to-Weight Conversionsby presenting comparable information for hardwood species. As such, P2244 might be supplied for elevator information about reasoning and purpose because that converting timber volumes to weight. Remember that the volume-to-ton switch presented below are averages and also are intended for use just in estimations and guidelines. Note that substantial variation exists both in estimate of volumes and also weights of hardwood logs and within any kind of individual species or amongst different species.

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Several factors increase the variability in hardwood lumber volume-to-weight conversions:

Log diameter is exceptionally influential in variance among logs. Log in rules commonly underestimate wood yield in small-diameter logs and also can overestimate productivity in bigger logs.

Individual log thickness can boost variability, v logs the the very same diameter and types ranging as much as 40 percent in some cases.

The place of a log in a trunk deserve to influence wood density, as well. Density can increase with bole height, and logs positioned further up the trunk might weigh more per plank foot. ~ above the other hand, there deserve to be an extensive taper in butt logs result in more weight for a calculation volume due to a much smaller scaling diameter at the end of the log.

The quantity of time between felling and also weighing logs is important; as logs dry, load per plank foot decreases.

Different types produce hardwood with different densities and typical moisture content. Denser woody varieties typically have lower moisture levels and also log weights that perform not vary as much as they dry.

Growing site distinctions can affect log weight due to differences in the species of timber (tension and also compression) as well as nutritive influence on multiple wood characteristics.

Genetics play an essential role, with people of the same types having various wood densities.

The season that the year deserve to be influential, through logs frequently weighing slightly more in the spring and also slightly less in the summer contrasted to the rest of the year.

Increases and decreases in development rate can also an outcome in varying lumber density, as alters in spring and summer lumber proportion can be associated with differing wood density.

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Several components increase the variability in hardwood timber volume-to-weight conversions.
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A load of hardwood logs top top the method to the mill. Keep in mind the range of species, consisting of several species of oak and also hickory.

Volume-to-Ton Conversions

A far-reaching difference between measuring pine and also hardwood sawlogs is what constitutes marketable stem length. Choose pine, hardwood logs are frequently recorded in terms of 16-foot logs. Unlike pine, however, greater quality hardwood logs are often cut and also sold in much shorter lengths under to 8 feet. To account for distinctions in Doyle Log rule volume estimate (the only legal measure in Mississippi until 1996), volume-to-ton conversions room presented in Table 1 in 2-inch DBH class for mixed hardwoods.

Table 1A. Volume to ton counter for mixed hardwood pulpwood products in Mississippi. The weight of wood deserve to vary native tree come tree, so usage these conversions as estimates and also guidelines only.

Product¹

Tons every Unit Volume Conversion³

Pulpwood

2.7 loads per cord because that soft hardwood species

2.8 loads per cord for combined hardwood species

2.9 lots per cord for difficult hardwood species

Table 1B. Volume come ton counter for combined hardwood sawtimber (when only DBH is known) assets in Mississippi. The load of wood have the right to vary native tree come tree, so usage these conversions as estimates and also guidelines only.

Average DBH²

Tons every Unit Volume Conversion³

14

12.1 loads per MBF

16

10.7

18

9.8

20

9.1

22

8.6

24

8.1

26

7.8

28

7.5

30

7.3

32

7.1

34

6.9

36

6.8

¹Pulpwood is a wood product used to create pulp fluff for making record and various other products. Sawtimber is a log large enough to saw into lumber, frequently measured in 16-foot lengths, however some greater value products measured in shorter lengths.

²Average DBH = median diameter in ~ breast height (4.5 feet above ground level) in inches.

³1 ton = 2,000 pounds; 1 cord = 128 cubic feet stacked wood; 1 MBF = 1,000 plank feet, Doyle log Scale. Sawtimber conversions adapted from Doruska et al. (2006).

If you understand both sawtimber length and also scaling diameter (diameter within bark at the tiny end the the log), Table 2 provides weight-per-log values. The an initial 16-foot log has most the the worth in hardwood sawlogs. Table 2 provides weight worths for much shorter logs varying in length in between 8 and 16 feet for use with Table 1. However, brief logs call for a slightly greater tons-per-MBF (1,000 board feet) conversion price than much longer logs for accurate calculation. Consequently, there is part unaccounted variability presented when utilizing the values in Table 2 for conversion calculations.

Table 2. Weight worths for combined hardwood sawlogs if scaling diameter and merchantable size is known. The load of wood have the right to vary native tree come tree, so usage these conversions as estimates and also guidelines only.

Scaling Diameter (inches)¹

Log length (feet)

8

10

12

14

16

Average Hardwood log Weights (tons)²

14

0.30

0.39

0.48

0.56

0.65

16

0.39

0.50

0.61

0.73

0.84

18

0.49

0.63

0.77

0.91

1.06

20

0.30

0.78

0.95

1.13

1.30

22

0.73

0.94

1.16

1.37

1.58

24

0.88

1.13

1.38

1.63

1.88

26

1.05

1.34

1.64

1.94

2.23

28

1.22

1.56

1.91

2.25

2.60

30

1.40

1.80

2.19

2.59

2.99

¹Scaling diameter is the median diameter inside the bark at the little end of the log.

²1 ton = 2,000 pounds

Data adjusted from Timson (1972) because that white and also red oaks, yellow poplar, and also hickory species.

Summary

Volume-to-weight conversion varies v several determinants including log in diameter. Because that ease, mills generally establish a addressed conversion variable when purchase logs. These conversions space usually somewhere between 8 and also 9 lots per MBF for hardwood sawlogs. However, a fast study that Tables 1 and also 2 mirrors that these solved conversion rates require exact estimation of average diameter for accurate conversion between log volume and also weight. The assumption that loads per MBF is a constant will result in lower price per MBF the sawn timber for large-diameter logs and a higher cost for those of smaller sized diameter. In instances of stands with large-diameter logs, it may be prudent because that landowners come request the stumpage be bought top top a volume basis quite than through the ton.

Additional Reading

Doruska, P., D. Patterson, J. Hartley, and M. Hurd. 2006. External bark eco-friendly tons every thousand plank feet: A situation study using sawtimber-sized hardwood trees in Arkansas. Journal of Forestry 10(7): 345–351.

Mercker, D., and also A. Tayler. Estimating load of Logs and also Standing Timber: overview for Foresters, the forest Industry, and also Landowners. College of Tennessee barisalcity.org publishing SP748. 4p.

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Self, A. B. 2019. Pine hardwood Volume-to-Weight Conversions. Mississippi State college barisalcity.org publication 2244. 4p

Timson, F. G. 1972. Sawlog weights for Appalachian hardwoods. USDA Forest business Research document NE-222. 29pgs.